Ways to Clean Water

The Best are Found in a Multi-Barrier Approach That Protects Water Quality From Source to Consumption

The best are found in a multi-barrier approach that protects water quality from source to consumption.

Note: The content on this page has been adapted from publications of World Health Organization (WHO) and Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST).

The World Health Organization has determined that a multi-barrier approach to household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) is the best way to reduce the risk of drinking unsafe water.

A multi-barrier approach means ensuring that water is protected and purified every step of the way from the water source to household storage and consumption. Water quality will only be as good as the weakest link in the chain of water handling.

We need to follow a process and not just rely on a single technology to improve water quality.

Both community and household water treatment systems follow the same water treatment process. The only difference is the scale of the systems that are used by communities and households.

There are many pollution problems which may threaten drinking water quality at the source, or point of collection. These risks include the following:

* poor protection of the water supply against pollution

* lack of hygiene and sanitation knowledge in the community

Protecting the water source reduces or eliminates these risks and can lead to improved water quality and health. Actions that are good and that can be taken at the community level can include some of the following:

* regularly cleaning the area around the water source

* moving latrines away from and downstream of water sources

* building fences to prevent animals from getting into open water sources

* lining wells to prevent surface water from contaminating the ground water

* building proper drainage for wastewater around taps and welts

Click here to read more about water source protection.

Sedimentation is a physical treatment process used to reduce the turbidity of the water. Remember that turbid water looks cloudy, dirty, or muddy and is caused by sand, silt, and clay that are floating in the water.

Turbid water usually has more pathogens so drinking it increases your chances of becoming sick.

There are and reduce turbidity by simply letting the water settle for some time.

This can be done in a small container such as a bucket or pail.

The sedimentation process can be quickened by adding special chemicals or native plants, also known as coagulants, to the water.

Coagulants help the sand, silt and clay join together and form larger clumps, making it easier for them to settle to the bottom of the container.

Three common chemicals used as and aid in sedimentation are aluminum sulphate, polyaluminum chloride (also known as or liquid alum) and ferric sulphate.

Native plants are traditionally used in some countries in Africa and Latin America to help with sedimentation. For example, prickly pear cactus, moringa seeds and fava beans have all been used to help sediment water.

Click here to read more about different sedimentation methods.

Filtration methods are and are commonly used after sedimentation to further reduce turbidity and remove pathogens. Filtration is a physical process which involves passing water through filter media.

Sand and ceramic are the most common filter media, although cloth and membranes can also be used. There are various types of filters that are used by households around the world.

Click here to read more about each of these water filters.

Best Water Purification Reviews is your #1 online source for information an all types of water purification systems such as water filters, water softeners, water purifiers, water treatment and bottled water.

The next step in household water treatment is to remove or kill any remaining pathogens through disinfection, The most common methods used by households around the world to disinfect their drinking water are:

Turbid water helps pathogens to "hide" from chemical, SODIS and UV disinfection.

Reducing turbidity by sedimentation (see Step 2) and filtration (see Step 3) is necessary to improve the effectiveness of these disinfection methods.

Click here to read more about different methods of disinfecting water, including electrochlorination.

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Chemical free is all they do, and their years of experience in this specialized field of water treatment allow them to bring you the best products for healthier, cleaner, more comfortable water.

Households do a lot of work to collect, transport and treat their drinking water. Now that the water is safe to drink, it should be handled and stored properly to keep it safe.

If it's not stored safely, the treated water quality could become worse than the source water and may cause people to get sick.

Safe storage means keeping your treated water away from sources of contamination, and using a clean and covered container. It also means drinking water from the container in a way so that people do not make each other sick.

The container should prevent hands, cups and dippers from touching the water, so that the water does not get recontaminated.

Click here to read more about safe water storage.

How do I test significant differences between slopes of 4 different regression lines? I am measuring leaf area expansion rate of plants getting different water treatments.

You didn't mention if you wanted to test the slopes for differences pairwise or as a set of four; but the method is the same.Just re-estimate any model for "all slopes and intercepts different" by restricting it to be "intercepts different; slopes the same". Twice the difference in log-likelihood will be distributed Chi-square with DF = the number of slopes you have restricted. If it's pairwise, that will be DF = 1 on each.A more detailed explanation is here: Chow test, although I prefer using the Likelihood Ratio Test directly.How do I test significant differences between slopes of 4 different regression lines? I am measuring leaf area expansion rate of plants getting different water treatments.

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Spanish Town Goes Green by Turning Sewage into Clean Energy
CHICLANA DE LA FRONTERA, Spain (Reuters) - A Spanish resort town with sprawling golf courses and tree-lined beaches has added another green site to its attractions: the world's first plant to convert sewage into clean energy.The facility in Chiclana de la Frontera on the southwest tip of Spain uses wastewater and sunlight to produce algae-based biofuel as part of a 12 million euro ($15.7 million) project to pursue alternative energies and reduce reliance on foreign oil.The use of algae for biomass, once touted by U.S. President Barack Obama as the fuel of the future, has been written off by some critics who say the large quantities of energy, water and chemicals needed to produce it makes the process unsustainable.The project in Chiclana, called All-gas to sound like "algas" or seaweed in Spanish, seeks to prove otherwise, becoming the first municipal wastewater plant using cultivated algae as a source for biofuel.While industries such as breweries or paper mills have produced biogas from wastewater for their own energy needs, All-gas is the first to grow algae from sewage in a systematic way to produce a net export of bioenergy, including vehicle biofuel."Nobody has done the transformation from wastewater to biofuel, which is a sustainable approach," said All-gas project leader Frank Rogalla, standing outside a trailer-laboratory set up beside an algae pond at the waste treatment site in Chiclana.Carbon dioxide is used to produce algae biomass, and the green sludge is transformed into gas, a clean biofuel commonly used in buses or garbage trucks because it is less polluting.All-gas' owner Aqualia is the world's third largest private water company. It is owned by loss-making Spanish infrastructure firm FCC which is betting on its environmental services business to relieve pain from a domestic construction downturn.While energy efficiency projects have gained pace in other European countries, Spain has been held back by a yawning budget gap that was at the centre of concerns the country would need an international bailout last year.The All-gas project is three-fifths financed by the European Union FP7 program to determine the effectiveness of the methane produced from algae-derived biomass in cars and trucks.The Chiclana plant, still in a pilot phase and 200 square meters in size, harvested its first crop of algae last month and expects to fuel its first car by December.All-gas expects it to be fully up and running by 2015, when it aims for 3,000 kg of algae on 10 hectares of land, roughly 10 football fields, to generate annual biofuel production worth 100,000 euros - that's enough biofuel to run about 200 cars or 10 city garbage trucks a year.Spain is battling a record 27 percent unemployment rate, with the south worst affected, and cash-strapped consumers have struggled under the weight of wage cuts and tax hikes over the past two years aimed at reining in the public deficit.Chiclana, which relies on tourism and salt-processing fields for its livelihood, was chosen for the site because of its ample sunlight and a long stretch of land that runs along oceanside salt fields where algae can be easily grown in man-made ponds.All-gas says its sewage plant is over 2 million euros cheaper to set up and run than a conventional sewage plant.But whether the project is able to fuel cars on a large scale will depend on the amount and quality of bioethanol it can eventually produce, and at what cost.Researchers so far have concluded that it may take years before algal biofuels are economically viable, though they may eventually be able to replace some portion of petroleum.The All-gas model has drawn interest from other efficiency-minded municipalities in southern Spain with populations between 20,000 and 100,000 and with enough land to develop the algal ponds, said Rogalla, who has identified at least 300 small towns where such projects could work.Aqualia has also had contact with Brazil, the United Arab Emirates and a French company over the possibility of building and operating similar water treatment plants under a concession.Rogalla is optimistic."The opportunity is such that 40 million people, roughly the population of Spain, would be able to power 200,000 vehicles from just flushing their toilet!" he said.
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