Was There Something Fundamentally Different Between 1776 and 1867 in the World That Led to Adam Smit

Great question.The world that Adam Smith inhabited and that of Karl Marx was very different. Almost a century had past. The primary means of production in Smith's era had been agrarian, while Marx wrote Das Kapital in the midst of the Industrial Revolution. For the Europeans living in Smith's times, and especially in the European America of Jefferson, Payne, and Franklin, life was generally improving.

The mood was optimistic. It may seem counterintuitive but between 1800 and 1900 the average English citizen would lose 10 years off his or her life spans. Life in England where Marx was living was not getting better, not for most people, absolutely not for the poor people. These two great men, had different points of view, largely because they were reflecting very different historic realitiesMarx was living in London and what he was observing, from his point of view, was the chickens coming home to roost. What began in Smith's naive and optimistic times had blossomed into human suffering on a massive scale, just as the slavery of Jefferson's day had progressed to become wage-slavery. Merchant Capitalism, of which Smith wrote and idealized, had become Industrial Capitalism. (In the USA the process toward wage-slavery was brutal indeed at that moment.

) The result of the triumph of Industrial Capitalism was the manifold increase in human suffering that Dickens wrote about. That's the world Marx felt needed to change, and the point of man's existence, for Karl, was to change it.Adam Smith foresaw a world that was very much in harmony. He envisioned, as did most of the intellectual founders of the American experiment, humanity bathed in light, arguably divine light. Smith believed that freedom was the natural condition of man and envisioned a society modeled on a natural ecology. If allowed, that society based on farming and village life,with a few shining cities on the hill, would keep itself in balance perpetuating a world in which natural forces acted beneficently on human beings so that they would be happy and thrive. If society was properly ordered, with merit, good will, mutuality, fair play, and free competition, the good life would usher forth like cordial rains. As in Jefferson's beloved garden, the societal garden, well tended, would be bountiful. Adam Smith argued well for his vision but Marx argued better for his. Marx saw a world that was very much in disharmony. He did not believe that nature was beneficent but neither did he believe it was malevolent, Similarly, he did not believe that the basic nature of human beings was good. He believed that Nature was nature, and that human nature was plastic and molded by the forces acting upon it. Karl Marx saw the mills and smoke belching factories in which men and woman were mercilessly worked to death. He saw the workhouses in which entire families languished for generations. All of this was so that a small number of greedy, unscrupulous, wealthy men could become wealthier. Marx saw exploitation and class war as the way of the world, yet, he too, was no pessimist. Marx shared with Smith the vision of a better world. Like Smith, Marx believed in progress and human liberty. Like Smith, Marx was well intentioned. You could call both men humanitarians. But Marx believed that for the potential of humanity to blossom, more than rational discourse was necessary. The class war needed to be fought and won by what he viewed was the most progressive of social classes, the class of people who did not live by exploitation

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Into how many parts is Kashmir divided? What were the major factors that led to this division?

As you see in the picture the Jammu and Kashmir is divided into 5 parts . The part shown in red is actually what we have.Let me tell you the history behind it.The matter of Kashmir is a complicated one. Pakistan and India are fighting over Kashmir since 1947. At the time of independence the British government divided the regions between India and Pakistan. But there were some regions that belonged to Kings and were called as the princely states. There were 500 princely states at that time including Kashmir, Hyderabad and many more. So they decided that the rulers will themselves decide their fate. They were given with the following choices.

A. Merge with Pakistan orB. Merge with India orC. Be an independent state (country) orD. Plebiscite (let the people decide).

Note : In all the 500 princely states the rulers decided their fate some went with Pakistan and most with India. They were having a luxury to select any of the option and were not bound to select any particular option.At that time Maharaja Hari Singh was the ruler of Muslim majority Kashmir like we had a Muslim ruler in the Hindu majority Hyderabad.

Maharaja knew that Mr Nehru was an evil, so he decided to remain independent despite having an strong inclination towards India because he knew that Nehru will overthrow him and will handover the Kashmir to his friend sheikh Abdullah(grandfather of former CM Omar Abdullah) , if he merged with India.So Kashmir became an independent country.Now the evil Pakistan planned to capture the Jammu and Kashmir because now it was easy for them to capture it due to the comparatively weaker Army.They demanded 55 crore rupees from India, which was the large amount of money in 1947 on the pretext of nation building because they were separated from India. Whole India in one voice bluntly rejected their demand because Pakistanis massacred lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs during the partition. But Mahatma Gandhi came to rescue of Pakistan and advocated to give funds to Pakistan and went on the fast unto death (aamaran anshan). The people of India were so much annoyed with Gandhi at that time that even his followers from Gandhi ashram were shouting slogans like Marta hai to Marney do. Pakistan ko ek footi koudi bi mat do (If he wants to die,Let him die but don't give even a single penny to Pakistan). But since Nehru who was close to Gandhi and he became the prime minister despite being less eligible than Sardar Patel only because of Gandhi, so in order to return the favor to Gandhi, he decided to give money to Pakistan.After Pakistan got the money from India , they bought the weapons and launched an attack on Kashmir in 1947. Maharaja's forces fought bravely but were outnumbered and lost almost half of the Kashmir (which is today called Pakistan occupied Kashmir ) to Pakistan. And pakistan was able to capture the vast region of Kashmir (POK) which includes Gilgit, Baltistan, Skardu and Azad Kashmir regions.To avoid even more loss of territory to Pakistan, On 26th October 1947, Raja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession which made the J&K region, an Integral part of India. India now had a responsibility to defend its new territory. The Indian army was sent immediately. The domination of Indian armed forces was such that the tribal forces couldnt stand their ground for even a day. But, then Nehru made the greatest mistake of his life. He asked the UNO to intervene and peacefully solve the issue. The UNO ordered ceasefire which meant that the war had to stop and the land occupied by either rivals will remain theirs. Indian army hadnt achieved its objective of eliminating all intruders from Kashmir. The ceasefire meant that the Pakistani tribal army got a huge chunk of Kashmir where the Indian army hadnt attacked yet. Today this chunk of land is called Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (P.O.K). India faces too many problems due to Kashmir which legally is Indian Territory according to the Instrument of Accession. UNO later declared Kashmir as disputed land making it impossible for our troops to overthrow it. Many generations before have asked and many more to come will keep questioning such a horrendous decision by Jawaharlal Nehru.Then later India lost the Aksai Chin region to china in 1962 Sino-India war and later in 1963 Pakistan gifted some part of Pakistan occupied Kashmir territory shown in brown color to china as a good will gesture.

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What was so difficult in making a blue LED?

This is a question that is directly related to my research, so it's going to be more detailed than most people would like.nBlue LEDs are made using gallium nitride (GaN) with InGaN quantum wells producing the light. Some of the problems were/are:1)Quality of GaN crystals: Crystals grown had a high dislocation defect density, so this increased the non-radiative recombination rate-SRH recombination and leakage currents. The dislocation defects cause deep level traps, which act as non-radiaitve recombination sites for electrons and holes. An efficient LED will maximize radiative recombination, since that's what produces the light.2)P-type doping: An LED uses a diode to inject charge carriers into quantum wells. A diode has a p-type material in contact with an n-type material. However, for a long time, no one could find a suitable p-type dopant for GaN. Nakamura managed to use magnesium as a p-type dopant by finding the right conditions (temperature and pressure). Even today, Mg doping is not ideal, due to the high activation energy. Only 10% of the Mg is activated. So, if your Mg concentration is 1e19, only about free 1e18 holes are generated.3) Low hole mobility and high resisitvity in p-GaN:Mg atoms are big, and the doping isn't uniform, so the mobility drops very sharply and the surface is rough. This is why p-materialis always grown last, since any material grown on top of p-GaN has poor quality. Hole mobilities for p-GaN are about 10-20 cm^2/(Vs). Low mobility and low free hole concentration makes p-GaN highly resistive. nResistivity mobility*hole concentration*unit of chargenAnother major issue with poor hole mobility is inhomogeneous hole distribution in QWs. Until a QW has enough bound carriers trapped in the well, it absorbs light. But due to poor mobility, only the QWs near the p-side are filled, while the others have fewer holes. So far, 2 QWs have been found to be optimal. Basically, 1-2 QWs are producing all the light, while the others are absorbing. This limits the number of QWs we can use.

nEven today, this issue hasn't been solved.4) Polarization Charge: III-N materials (GaN, AlN and InN) are polar materials due t asymmetry in the structure along the polar c-plane. Nonpolar and semipolar crystal planes exist, but they have poor crystal quality.

nWhenever there a heterojunction (2 different materials in contact like GaN/InGaN) a sheet charge will exist at the interface. This charge bends the band diagram and quantum wells as shown below. This charge also causes another barrier to hole injection into the QW, since the positive sheet charge at the p-GaN/InGaN interface repels holes.

nThe diagram on the left is a regular non polar quantum well (like GaAs), so the well is rectangular. The dotted lines are electron (top) and hole (bottom) wave functions. nThe QW gain is directly related to the overlap between the electron and hole wavefunctions. On the left, there is almost 100% overlap.nOn the right, due to the polarization charge, electrons are pulled on one side and holes on the other side, so the overlap is very low. This effect reduces gain and is called the Quantum Confined Stark Effect. There are tricks to mitigate this effect.n Image taken from my adviser's web page.n5) Strain: All III-N materials have a large lattice mistmatch, which means the AlN is much smaller than GaN, which is smaller than InN along the a-plane.

nA typical LED has at least 10-20 layers grown one on top of another by the MOCVD process. nIf you grow layers one on top of another, the structure will crack due to strain, unless the layers aren't too different in composition. For example, 10% AlGaN on GaN maybe ok upto a certain height, but 25% AlGaN on GaN will crack. This restricts the design space.

Despite these drawbacks, the AlInGaN material system is very promising, since it can go all the way from infrared (InN bandgap0.7 eV) to mid-deep UV (AlN bandgap6.2 eV)

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