Some One Good at Biology Please Help!!!!?

Diffusion is the random movement of molecules. If a lot of molecules of a compound are in an area their random movement means they will spread out. Consequently, they will move from where there happens to be a lot of them (a high concentration) to where there is less of them (a low concentration). This is just described as moving down a concentration gradient. A number of things affect diffusion. Small molecules move quicker than larger ones. Diffusion is faster where the difference in concentrations is larger (the diffusion gradient is described as being steeper). Temeprature affects diffusion. Diffusion is described as passive but this is often not explained well. Diffusion does require energy. The energy required is the kinetic energy of the molecules. Diffusion requires no additional energy. If the temperature goes up the molecules acquire more kinetic energy and move around faster. Now we know what diffusion is let's answer your questions. 1) Osmosis is diffusion of water. They move from where there is a lot of water molecules to where there are less water molecules. It gets slighlty more complicated. If there are substances dissolved in the water (called solutes) they attract the water and can affect its movement. Nevertheless water always moves from where there are less water molecules to where there are more. Now, diffsuion will happen in a bowl of water BUT it's only osmosis if the water molecules are moving across a membrane between two solutions. In life this is across the cell membrane between the inside of the cell and tissue fluid. Pure water has a water potential of zero. If you add solutes the water potential becomes lower - to become lower than zero it must be negative. Water molecules move from a less concentrated solution (less negative water potential) to a more concentrated solution (more negative water potential). Water potential is a type of pressure and is measured in pressure units, such as megapascals (MPa). So it there was a solution of -345 MPa separated by a membrane from a solution of -564 MPa the water would move from the -345 solution to the -564 one. 2) There are two types of diffusion. If the molecules can cross the cell membrane the diffusion is called simple diffusion or just diffusion. Molecules can do this if they are small, not charged, not polar and if lipid-soluble. Molecules cannot cross the membrane if they are charged, polar, too large and water-soluble. To enable these molecules to cross there are proteins in the cell membrane that enable these molecules to pass through the membrane. They help the molecules or ions cross the membrane. Another word for help is they facilitate so that's where we get facilitated diffusion from. 3) Active transport moves substances against concentration gradients. A substance is moved in the opposite direction you would expect to happen in diffusion. This requires energy like diffusion. However, the kinetic energy of the molecules is not enough. Additional energy must be supplied and this comes from the breakdown of ATP to ADP. 4) Aquaporins are proteins in the cell membrane that allow water molecules to cross the membrane which is mainly made from lipid that repels water. I've given a brief overview. I am sure I've missed things. I recommend you read this up in two different textbooks and either a good study or revision guide. If you are a UK student try the revision website s-cool. If after all that you are still struggling ask your teacher - that's what they are for.

1. Why does the water potential of a banana decrease as it ripens?

As the banana ripens the starch,which is insolube is converted to sugars which are soluble.This increase in dissolved material results in a lower water potential

2. how would you measure the water potential of a piece of plant tissue?

The water potential of a plant tissue can be determined by the following principle. If the tissue shows no net gain or loss of water when immersed in a solution of known molarity, its water potential is equal to that of the external solution. Full details in link

3. Is tree SAP water a potential source of Vitamin B12 for vegans?

No. There are no vegetable sources of MeCbl or AdoCbl (or CyCbl or HyCbl, inactive but slightly convertible), human active cobalamins. There are at least 18 vegetable only cobalamins that are considered "junk" cobalamins for humans. They are in no way usable for the human, or any other animal, metabolism. I would suggest a brand of MeCbl that works well for you and AdoCbl (dibencozide). L-methylfolate, a human active folate is much more effective than folic acid. Some people don't use vegetable folates well either. Supplemental or pharmaceutical B12 is brewed in big stainless steel vessels with a medium and bacteria that produce MeCbl, and then react chemically in various ways for other forms.Is tree SAP water a potential source of Vitamin B12 for vegans?

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How Are Transpiration and Water Potential Related?
Water Potential Transpiration1. Can anyone please explain about osmosis and water potential?it rather is in basic terms like diffusion, stress, osmosis and all that stuff. each and everything desires to be in equilibrium. a close-by of extra unfavourable water means will lose water no count if that's adjoining to a close-by of much less unfavourable water means. If the two adjoining section's are of equivalent water means then there is not any internet stream of water2. Can someone help with a water potential problem?Water potential in a potato is the sum of the pressure and solute potentials. Remember that water flows from high potential to low potential. The pressure potential is caused by turgor (because of water pushing against cell walls) pressure inside of the cell. As a potato sits in the air water evaporates and it loses water and thus turgor pressure. This causes an overall decrease in water potential. Meaning if water is available, water will more easily flow back into the potato.3. What is the highest water potential a solution can have?By definition pure water has the highest water potential value and is set to ZERO. Any added solute makes the value increasingly negative4. Mycchorizae fungi and plants, water potential question?Mycchorizae can make a tremendous difference in your plant growth. Through a symbiotic relationship (beneficial ecological relationship) with the plant, mycchorizae helps the plant with nutrient uptake and water uptake. In other words the fungi living in the roots takes more water into the plant helping the plant. And in return the plant allows the fungi to feed off of excess plant nutrients and carbohydrates5. What is solute potential? What is the relation between solute potential and water potential?Pure water is usually defined as having a solute potential () of zero, and in this case, solute potential can never be positive. The relationship of solute concentration (in molarity) to solute potential is given by the Va not Hoff Equation: = miRT where m is the concentration in molarity of the solute, i is the Va not Hoff factor, the ionization constant of the solute (1 for glucose, 2 for NaCl, etc.) R is the ideal gas constant, and T is the temperature. For example, when a solute is dissolved in water, water molecules are less likely to diffuse away via osmosis than when there is no solute. A solution will have a lower and hence more negative water potential than that of pure water. Furthermore, the more solute molecules present, the more negative the solute potential is. Solute potential has important implication for many living organisms. If a living cell with a lower solute concentration is surrounded by a concentrated solution, the cell will tend to lose water to the more negative water potential of the surrounding environment. This is often the case for marine organisms living in sea water and halophytic plants growing in saline environments. In the case of a plant cell, the flow of water out of the cell may eventually cause the plasma membrane to pull away from the cell wall, leading to plasmolysis. (wikipedia.") Two compartments are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. The size of the pores is large enough to let small particles (ions, molecules) pass freely though small enough to inhibit the passage of larger molecules. In the left compartment develops a higher osmotic pressure due to the hydration sheath that surrounds each particle. Since it contains more 'water-binding' particles, expands the volume of the left compartment. The osmotic pressure (turgor) can be measured with a pressure gauge. It depends on psi = water potential, delta P = hydrostatic pressure, sigma = the ratio of the apparent osmotic pressure to the theoretical osmotic pressure for the semipermeable membrane and pi = osmotic pressure of the compartment (cell).6. why the Si unit of water potential is pascal?and not joule?try not to mix up these two conception pascal is the unity of fluid pressure(P) and it just depends on water deep(h),density of water(p) and gravity acceleration(g) P(pa)=p(kg/m^3).g(m/s^2).h(m) but joule is the unity of energy (work) and it depends on mass(m),gravity acceleration(g) and height of mass(h) k(joule)=m(kg).g(m/s^2).h(m) so be careful using of joule(for energy) and pascal(for pressure of a fluid)
What Has a Higher Water Potential, a Hypertonic Solution, Or a Hypotonic Solution?
OK firstly water potential is the ability of water to move freely please bare what word freely OK now in hypertonic solutions --- the solute concentration is more so water content less obviously, water potential is less here1. A-level Bio: i dont understand water potential at all! could someone explain in simple terms?Noo. Solute is basically sugars and salts within a liquid such as water. The more solute(salt or sugar) in water, the more negative the water potential. The more negative the water potential, the more attractive the cell becomes to water in order to icnrease the water potential again. Pure water has a water potetial of 0, but as the solution becomes more solute, the water potential will decrease into a negative figure. The cell can only take in a certain amount of water otherwise it will burst because of pressure on its cell membrane. It is very hard for a cell to get a water potential of zero, only distilled water is likely to have a close to zero water potential2. AP Bio Lab Question: Water Potential Calculation.. top points!!?ok so two forces act on a solution 1) Osmotic Potential - for example, if you put sugar water on one side and pure water on teh other side, obviously more water would flow from the pure side into the sugar side to dilute the sugar side. 2) Pressure Potential - maybe there is a force pushing the water from the sugar side into the pure water side Okay. so the question says theres 0 pressure potential. So taht means theres no force acting on the solution EXCEPT osmotic pressure. so look at your lab results. when did your results stop moving? at this point, an equilibrium is reached. use the value for the molar concentration of the potato cores to determine the water potential for the potato cells. how? This formula: Solute potential = -iCRT i = The number of particles the molecule will make in water; for NaCl this would be 2; for sucrose or glucose, this number is 1 C = Molar concentration (from your experimental data) R = Pressure constant = 0.0831 liter bar/mole K T = Temperature in degrees Kelvin = 273 C of solution3. Water potential in plants?Ok let me try to tackle this one - still could be off - let me know. The book Chapter from UCDavis that is linked from your wikipedia page is a good reference I think. Overall the term 'water potential' will try to estimate an energy function that describes the behavior of water in a chemo-mechanical sense. $Psi_total = Psi_reference Psi_solute Psi_pressure Psi_gravitational Psi_humidity Psi_matrix$It looks a lot like a Hamiltonian expression of total energy that tries to see the water as a fluid. The water potential is not the same as an energy equation for fluid dynamics which tries to understand the motion of a body of liquid and does not typically take into consideration chemical changes like solute in the behavior. So first we are looking at a set of behaviors that the fluid experiences. some of them treat the fluid as a body ( pressure, gravitational) others look at the potential for evaporation or diffusion (solute and humidity to some degree). wetting of surfaces and surface tension (matrix). The water potential is an equation broken down into a set of measurable or approximately measurable energy terms. But like a lot of Energy equations, when you are looking at a biological system, it is more often qualitative than a quantitated entity. The general observation that surface tension decreases when temperature goes up, or when the solutes have higher concentration is used to make arguments of the mechanism of say physiology Generally speaking looking at the magnitudes of the various terms you can see how influential they are and then try to focus the hypothesis into a test that can make a distinction about the mechanism with specific measurements. The actual overall measurement of a water potential or any total energy is almost always intractable. The difference in energy is what you might be able to measure, but in the case of the water potential, the measurement will usually be an observation, with some uncertainty that water is moving from point A to B and not elsewhere. Take a look at this paper describing Drought Stress in Arabidopsis. The water potential is cited as a critical element of drought response - and of course it should be. But all this work here, with all the proteins acting to change the physiology of the cell, adjust the chemical potential (and therefore the osmotic potential) of the cell membrane, its hard to imagine how measuring a root system at all points would be possible
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