Sandstone Getting Soaked with Water [duplicate]

My guess will be that it's mainly the effect of capillarity forces due to the porous quality of the stone surface. This might also be a good read

1. Need help with a geology question!!!?

The sandstone, shale, and limestone sequence is a facies change from a beach to marine environment, getting deeper as you go from shale to limestone. Since they are inclined, you know they've been tilted for some reason. The mudstone is horizontal so it was not tilted and is probably from a marine environment again. The basalt is from a volcano, then back to sandstone which means a beach environment

2. What is a good way to remove Algae from large coarse rocks.?

Pressure washer might do the trick, but will probably scar the rocks, sandstone is very soft, as far as rocks go. I have a Dremel, and would probably try a soft buffing wheel on a hidden area, to see what happens. You could ask at your LFS if they have any ideas. Surely they have seen this problem before and would know if there is a solution. You may just have to accept that these rocks are permanently discolored and forget about them. Good luck!

3. Rusted sandstone, is there a formal name?

Normally we call it red sandstone or perhaps hematitic sandstone. You would have to identify the minerals in the veins to know what the veins are composed of.

4. In what geologic setting would you expect foliation to be absent?

From any type of parent rock that lacks mineral diversity. Examples would be: Quartz sandstone Quartzite | Limestone Marble

5. Where is the best place to buy limestone/sandstone? I live near Kent UK am new to buying for myself!?

Dover is in Kent. Essex is around the Thames (get entry to by ability of way of Dartford Tunnel - no passport needed regardless of a few rumours :o) ) Kent additionally borders on London to the East and has borders with the counties of Surrey and Sussex. France is in basic terms around the channel - 30mins by ability of Le commute rail link

6. How do I get gold dust out of sandstone?

How well do you trust your jeweler? It is a lot more likely that your gold flakes are really mica

7. What are the best downhill mountain bike tires for terrain with slippery mud, and sandstone rocks?

Kenda Small BLOck 8 INtense Tire Systems

8. I want to carve a sandstone canyon like Petra. Are there any regulations against that?

That depends entirely on where you hmmm live and who owns that land. If it's your own private property and you own the mineral rights and have environmental permits, go for it.If it's not your land whoever owns it will likely stop you as soon as you pull out your first shovel or chisel. I want to carve a sandstone canyon like Petra. Are there any regulations against that?

9. Lithic sandstone, micaceous shale, and coal:what is the tectonic setting for this rock suite?

try read up some articles regarding continental rift basins. Which is most likely to be the tectonic setting of those listed rock type. Fluvial system commonly associates with continental rift basin. A fluvial depositional environment is required to generate lithic sandstone either associated with channel system of deltaic environment, shale usually deposited in open water bodies in pro-delta area it can be marine or lacutrine lakes. Coal usually developed in lower coastal plain environment that start-up from swamp or marshes

10. How is sandstone cut to make buildings?

Sandstone is hard but brittle. Sandstone will not break even if you park your jeep over it. But if you drop it, it will smash to pieces. Engineers and workers use special machines that have blades of either very hard stainless steel or diamond as both are very hard. Hope that helps you. If not, then do a little searching at google.

11. What are the formulas for marble, limestone, sandstone and granite?

Calcite Chemical Formula

12. I had a well drilled here in WV 24 years ago. We have sandstone and limestone.?

Check with the State Geological Survey in Morgantown. They have geologists and hydrologists on staff who probably can answer your question. They may even be able to send someone out to look at your well.

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Knowledge About Sandstone - Phillips County Carnegie Library of Sandstone
Phillips County Carnegie Library of sandstonePhillips County Carnegie Library is a Carnegie library on the National Register of Historic Places located in Malta, Montana. It was added to the Register on August 27, 1980. For a time, it was used as a museum interpreting local history.It was built of tan brick on a stone foundation in 1917. It is 34 by 62 feet (10m 19m) in plan, and has the words "Carnegie Library" carved in sandstone above its doorway.The public library moved to a new location in May 1978, and the local historical society then planned to use this building as a museum.------Acacia gnidium of sandstoneAcacia gnidium is a shrub belonging to the genus Acacia and the subgenus Phyllodineae that is native to parts of north eastern Australia.The shrub typically grows to a height of up to 4m (13ft) and has a dense and spreading habit.The shrub is found in Central Queensland from around Kroombit Tops National Park in the south east to around Springsure in the south west and up to around the White Mountains in the north where it is found on rugged rocky sandstone country as a part of scrub or Eucalyptus woodland communities.------Poet's Seat Tower of sandstoneCoordinates: 423541N 723511W / 42.5946N 72.5865W / 42.5946; -72.5865Poet's Seat Tower is a 1912 sandstone observation tower, located in Greenfield, Massachusetts. It was so named to honor a long tradition of poets being drawn to the spot, in particular, the local poet Frederick Goddard Tuckerman. By 1850, the location was referred to as "Poet's Seat" by Tuckerman in a surviving herbarium entry for November 10 of that year.An earlier wooden tower was erected at the site on June 3, 1879. This first structure was built, along with a public drinking fountain and a road accessing the site, under the auspices of The Greenfield Rural Club.------Hall Cliff of sandstoneHall Cliff (7159S 6837W / 71.983S 68.617W / -71.983; -68.617Coordinates: 7159S 6837W / 71.983S 68.617W / -71.983; -68.617) is a sandstone cliff 1 nautical mile (2km) long, located along the south side of Saturn Glacier and 1 nautical mile west of Citadel Bastion in eastern Alexander Island, Antarctica. The feature was mapped from trimetrogon air photography taken by the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition, 194748, and from survey by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, 194850. It was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee from association with Saturn Glacier after Asaph Hall, the American astronomer who contributed toward the study of Saturn and also discovered the satellites of the planet Mars..------Buffalo Public School No. 24 of sandstoneBuffalo Public School No. 24, also known as Public School 59, is a historic school building located in the Broadway-Fillmore neighborhood of Buffalo, Erie County, New York. The original section was built in 1901, and is a three-story, seven bay, "I"-shaped, red brick building over a raised basement with Renaissance Revival detailing. The building incorporates sandstone, terra cotta, and pressed metal details. It was the first school to offer special education within the City of Buffalo school system. The school has been redeveloped as an apartment building.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2016.------Mynydd Meio of sandstoneMynydd Meio is a 322-metre-high hill in the county borough of Caerphilly in South Wales. Parts of its western slopes fall within Rhondda Cynon Taf county borough. Its eastern slopes drop away to Cwm yr Aber between Caerphilly and Abertridwr and its western slopes to the valley of the Taf. The high point is just over 200 m north of the trig point which sits at 322 metres (1,056ft) above sea-level.The hill is crossed by the Senghenydd Dyke, an ancient earthwork considered to date from the 13th century and associated with nearby Caerphilly Castle.------Searight's Fulling Mill of sandstoneSearight's Fulling Mill is a historic fulling mill located at Perryopolis, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, USA. It was built about 1810 and is a 2 1/2-story, sandstone building with a gable roof. It measures approximately 20 by 30 feet (6.1 by 9.1m). The mill closed in the 1820s and was converted to a dwelling.It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.The mill is named after William Searight, who built the mill on a farm previously owned by George Washington. Searight is credited for realizing that small fulling mills could not compete with city based factories served by railroads, and left the fulling business before his mills became unprofitable.------Jacob Spori Building of sandstoneThe Jacob Spori Building was a historic building located in Rexburg, Idaho listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was the first building built at the permanent location of Ricks College, a college founded in 1888 by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.It was built during 1900 to 1903. Its external walls were faced with ashlar, and were 51 inches (1.3m) at the foundation, 32 inches (0.81m) at the first floor windows, 28 inches (0.71m) at the second floor windows, and 24 inches (0.61m) at the third floor windows. Lighter colored sandstone was used for string courses encircling the building.The building was destroyed by a fire in 2000. A new Spori Building was built on the same site and in a similar style.------Old Greeley County Courthouse (Kansas) of sandstoneThe Old Greeley County Courthouse in Tribune, Kansas, is the former courthouse of Greeley County, Kansas. Built from 1889 to 1890, the courthouse was the first in Greeley County. Construction started only a year after the county was formed in 1888. William T. Heaps, who also designed Hamilton County's courthouse, designed the building. The sandstone courthouse has a plain design with an iron cornice. It was constructed by Allen and Oleson of Ness City, Kansas and William Ruff.In 1975, Greeley County replaced the courthouse with a new building adjacent to the old one. The old courthouse became the Greeley County Historical Society Museum.The courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976.------Ghoufi of sandstoneGhoufi, also known as the Rhoufi, Balconies of Ghoufi and Ghoufi Canyon, is a historic settlement in the village of T'kout in Batna Province, Algeria. These ruins are located in the Aures Mountains and Abiod Valley. The Balconies of Ghoufi overlook an oasis.The Ghoufi balcony ruins include troglodyte homes or domesticated cave dwellings. The homes are carved out of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, including sandstone. The home are four centuries old and were inhabited until the 1970s. 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It usually blooms between August and December producing white-pink-purple star-shaped flowers.Found on hillsides and among granite outcrops in the Mid West and Wheatbelt regions extending into the Swan Coastal Plain of Western Australia where it grows on sandy or clay soils over granite, laterite and sandstone.The species was first formally described by the botanist John Lindley in 1839 in the work A Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony. The only synonym is Calycothrix glutinosa, described in 1843 by Johannes Conrad Schauer in the work Monographia Myrtacearum Xerocarpicarum.------Steinsfjorden of sandstoneSteinsfjorden is a branch of the lake Tyrifjorden located in Buskerud, Norway. It has a length of about eight kilometers, stretching from the sound Kroksund at Sundvollen northwards to sa, in the municipalities of Ringerike and Hole. At the eastern side are steep cliffs towards Krokskogen.At the western side of Steinsfjorden is Stein Grd, the largest farm in Buskerud. The ruins of Stein Church (Stein kirkeruin) are located on Stein Grd. The church was constructed during the latter half of the 1100s of sandstone and limestone from the area. By the second half of the 1500s, the church was no longer actively used.------Arkansas Valley National Bank of sandstoneThe Arkansas Valley National Bank, constructed in 1902, is a two-story, 30 feet x 90 feet sandstone structure located in Pawnee, Oklahoma. Constructed in a Late Victorian architectural style, it was Pawnee's original bank. When the building opened, the bank occupied the first floor, while a doctor, photographer, and local telephone office occupied the second floor. The bank closed around 1918, and the building has served as various storefronts since.Originally the bank was to be called the Pawnee County Bank, and this name is engraved on the east wall; however it was chartered as the Arkansas Valley National Bank. 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When it blooms it produced simple inflorescences occur singly in the axils and have spherical flower-heads containing 30 to 35 yellow coloured flowers..------Rich Mountain (ArkansasOklahoma) of sandstoneRich Mountain is the second highest point of the U.S. Interior Highlands and Ouachita Mountains, and in the U.S. state of Arkansas; it is also the site of Queen Wilhelmina State Park. Rich Mountain is a long, generally eastwest-trending ridge composed of hard sandstone. It is located just outside of Mena, Arkansas and is intersected by the Arkansas-Oklahoma border. Atop its summit is the Rich Mountain Lookout Tower, which is approximately 2.4mi (3.9km) east-southeast of the Queen Wilhelmina Lodge.Arkansas State Highway 88 and Oklahoma State Highway 1, collectively known as the Talimena Scenic Drive, traverse the entire top of Rich Mountain and provide excellent vistas of the surrounding Ouachita Mountains.------Sulphur Creek (Utah) of sandstoneSulphur Creek is a slot canyon canyoneering route found in Capitol Reef National Park in the state of Utah. It is a 6.25 mile hike one way and has been categorized by the state of Utah as an easy hiking trail. The canyon contains waterfalls, pools, overhangs and red sandstone, and a shallow stream that runs through it year-round. The route begins from the Chimney Rock trailhead and ends at the Visitor Center. The rocks at Sulphur Creek are some of the oldest exposed rocks in Capitol Reef.Sulphur Creek confluences with the Fremont River at the town of Fruita, Utah, located within Capitol Reef National Park.
I Have a White Metal Bistro Set (1 Table, 2 Chairs). I'd Like to Paint It Black. I Have Flat Black O
Sandstone (like a soft brownish yellow) That's the color of my kitchen. Goes with everything. Will be beautiful with the white and blue floor and the black appliances1. Paving - Indian Sandstone patio - jointingI have no idea what silver sand is. I would be tempted to pry out a chunk of mortar from the existing mortar and go to a specialty tile shop. "Hi, can you match this?"That said, matching mortar colours is a crap shoot. You may find that to get a match, you will need to scrape out 1/8" of the existing mortar everywhere, and redo it.2. I am going to build a patio out of sandstone sidewalk slabs.What is the proper material to put underneath?That would be a great place to hide the bodies!3. what is the difference between sandstone and conglomerate?wikipedia got the answer4. Granite & Sandstone. ....I need help.?Granite is an igneous rock. It would have to erode and be carried away by water to form sedimentary deposits. Upon burial these sediments could consolidate into sandstone rock5. building a sandstone rock wall?Lucky you! People pay good money to buy stone and have it delivered. First thing you want to do is to sort out the pieces for approximate size, this will help you find the size and shape of the rocks you select as you build the wall. Set your first course of rock so the top of the stones are just showing above ground level, this will give you a nicer looking base. As you build the wall, try to incorporate the larger stones along the lower courses, as getting bigger as you go higher will result in a less stable wall. Try to get a good mix of sizes as you go along with the stacking, this will help to avoid patterns. Patterns LOOK nice enough, until you break that pattern, then they really show up. Pack dirt in along the back side of the wall as you stack it to help it remain stable as you go up. Putting in a weed barrier along the back of the wall as you fill it will help dirt from eroding out from behind the wall as well. It really is not rocket science, but following these rules will help you achieve a nicer looking project when it's done.6. What Are the Three Most Common Cementing Agents for Sandstones?Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed of mostly quartz compressed and cemented together. The cementing agents are the materials that hold the sandstone together. The composition of the stone and the cementing agent used will determine the strength, durability and weather-resistant properties of the sandstone. Silica cement, also called quartz cement, creates the strongest and most durable type of sandstone used for building. The cement is a result of the quartz grains overgrowing and expanding the crystallized forms until it runs into another quartz crystal. This type of sandstone typically forms in environments that have high-energy currents, such as beaches, marine bars and desert dunes. Calcite cement is the most common type of cement found in sandstone. The calcite cement typically forms in patches and does not fill all the gaps within the stone. This makes calcite cement sandstone very porous. Calcite is also soluble in wate, which can erode away the cement making the stone even more porous. Another common cementing agent in sandstone is iron oxide, also called hematite cement. The iron present in the cement will give the sandstone a distinctive red color. According to the Stone Care Techniques website, iron oxide cemented sandstone weather well in dry climates and become harder and stronger, resisting weathering and deterioration. Sandstone also has other cementing agents that occur in less common forms. These cementing agents include pyrite, barite and gypsum. These cementing agents form crystals between the particles of the stone. These cements produce a much softer type of sandstone with the particles able to be rubbed off the stone with your hand.7. how do you clean sandstone fireplace?I would use a soft bristled wire brush like a BBQ grill brush. These are brass or copper bristles and will not destroy the sandstone. You can buy a rotary wheel for a drill made of brass, but it will probably spin too fast and take off some of your stone work (I would not advise this method). Using a hand brush will take some time but it will be worth it.
Introduction to Sandstone,elzy of Sandstone
elzy of sandstoneelzy (German: Schelesen) is a village and municipality in Mlnk District in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. Tourist attractions include the Devil's Heads, sculptures from the first half of the 19th century carved in the sandstone above the town------Architecture and description of sandstoneThe church is built of grey rubble with dressings of Old Red Sandstone. The style is Perpendicular. The building comprises a nave, chancel, porch and a double bell gable. The interior contains a "fine baroque monument" to Charles Hughes of Trostrey Court, who died in 1676. The church is a Grade II* listed building.------Hilton Brook of sandstoneThe Hilton Brook or Sutton Brook is a tributary of the River Dove in Derbyshire, England, and is 26 kilometres (16 miles) long. 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The Maritime Plain runs around the coast of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia from the south shore of Chaleur Bay and includes Prince Edward Island and the Magdalen Islands. The Kouchibouguac National Park lies in the New Brunswick lowlands, part of the Maritime Plain..------Burg Schnburg of sandstoneSchnburg Castle is in the municipality of Schnburg 4.5 kilometers east of Naumburg at the heart of Federal Republic of Germany in the State of Saxony-Anhalt. It has been proposed by Germany for inscription in the List of World Heritage.------North Gaulton Castle of sandstoneNorth Gaulton Castle is a sea stack off the western coast off the Orkney main island. It is formed from the red sandstone of the area and is about 165 feet high. It was climbed in 2017 by four climbers using a Tyrolean traverse..------Haardt of sandstoneThe Haardt is a range of wooded, sandstone hills in the state of Rhineland Palatinate in southwestern Germany. The range is some 85 kilometres (53mi) long and lies within the Palatinate Forest (Pflzerwald). Its highest point is the Kalmit, near Maikammer, which stands 673 metres (2,208ft) above sea level.------Drakelow, Worcestershire of sandstoneDrakelow is a hamlet in Worcestershire, England. It is one of the ancient townships of the manor of Wolverley, whose extent was similar to that of the modern civil parish of Wolverley & Cookley. It is located approximately 1 mile (1.6km) northwest of Wolverley and the same distance southwest of Blakeshall.------Congregation of sandstoneIn 1991, the congregation of Victoria Park parish Church united with that of Balshagray Parish Church, forming the Balshagray Victoria Park congregation, whilst retaining use of the Balshagray Church building. The 'New' Victoria Park Church building was demolished in 1993, the old church having been demolished in the 1960s to make way for the Clyde Tunnel.------Rolfson House of sandstoneThe Rolfson House near Livingston, Montana was built in 1900. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.It is a tall one-and-a-half-story stone house, built by stonemason Martin Rolfson. Its walls are built of squared sandstone blocks about 9 by 12 by 36 inches (0.23m 0.30m 0.91m) in size, from a quarry on the property.------Arthur Tavern of sandstoneArthur Tavern is a historic inn and tavern building located at Arthur in Oswego County, New York. It consists of a 2-story main block, three bays wide and four bays deep, with a 112-story wing. It is constructed of grey sandstone and built around 1838.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on November 14, 1991.------Hauxwell Hall of sandstoneHauxwell Hall or Hawkswell Hall is a grade II* listed 17th-century country house in West Hauxwell, North Yorkshire, England, some 5 miles (8 km) south-west of Catterick.It is built of coursed sandstone, part rendered, and ashlar, with Welsh slate roofs. The main range is a 17th-century, 3-storey block with a 5-bay frontage, flanked by 18th century 2-storey wings.------Brockville, New York of sandstoneBrockville is a hamlet in the town of Murray in Orleans County, New York, United States. It is named after Heil Brockway, a native of Clinton in Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States. The small settlement is located approximately 0.75 miles east of Hindsburg and was largely settled due to the opening of Medina Sandstone quarries in that vicinity------Euphorbia rowlandii of sandstoneEuphorbia rowlandii, the Levuvhu euphorbia, is a succulent member of the spurge family native to the Soutpansberg region in South Africa, and southeastern Zimbabwe. It is a medium-sized, monoecious shrub with multiple spiny blue-green photosynthetic stems. The species is superficially similar to E. waterbergensis, and is named after the Levubu River------Brachyrhinodon of sandstoneBrachyrhinodon is an extinct genus of sphenodontian from the Triassic of Scotland. It is related to the tuatara, the only member of its order that is not extinct.Brachyrhinodon is known from the sandstone quarries near Elgin, and is one of the Elgin Reptiles.------Catchment of sandstoneThe brook drains a catchment with a geology consisting of mainly Mercian mudstones and Siltstone, but with some Sandstone and Shales in the upper reaches. Hilton Brook has an area of 103 square kilometres, and has been designated as main river by the Environment Agency from Longford to its confluence with the Dove.------Keefe Row of sandstoneKeefe Row, at E. 22nd St. and Evans Ave. in Cheyenne, Wyoming, was built in 1892. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.It is a row of nine one-and-a-half-story brick residences. All are built on rusticated sandstone foundations.They were designed by Cheyenne architect J.P. Julien.------History of sandstoneFrancis Eyre of Hassop Hall built the original chapel between 1816-17. The Eyres had lived at Hassop since the 15th century and were prominent local Catholics. The architect, Joseph Ireland, worked for many Catholic families in the Midlands but few of his buildings survive..------Cutbank of sandstoneCutBank is a literary journal. Cutbank may also refer to:Cutbank, Saskatchewan, unincorporated hamlet in Loreburn Rural Municipality No. 254, Saskatchewan, CanadaCutbank River, tributary of the Smoky River in western Alberta, CanadaCutbank Sandstone, member of the Lower Mannville geologic formation in southern Alberta, Canada------List of mountains and hills of the Elbe Sandstone MountainsThis list of mountains and hills in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains contains a selection of mountains, hills, crags and foothills in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains that straddle the German-Czech border also referred to as Saxon-Bohemian Switzerland.The key to abbreviations in the table is given below.------Reston Group of sandstoneThe Reston Group is a Silurian to Devonian lithostratigraphic group (a sequence of rock strata) in the Southern Uplands terrane of southern Scotland and northernmost England. The name is derived from Reston in the Scottish Borders. The rocks of the Reston Group have also previously been referred to as 'Lower Old Red Sandstone and Lavas'.------Milton Ness of sandstoneMilton Ness is a coastal landform along the coast of the North Sea approximately two miles south of the village of Johnshaven, Scotland. This headland feature includes a red sandstone cliff formation. Certain prehistoric features are found in the vicinity of Milton Ness, including the Stone of Morphie located somewhat to the west..------Gleadless War Memorial of sandstoneThe Gleadless War Memorial is a Grade-II listed war memorial located on Hollinsend Road at Gleadless, Sheffield. The statue, which depicts a life size sandstone British soldier dressed in a First World War uniform, was put in place during the 1920s.------Geology of sandstoneSandstone and mudstone of the Brawley Formation accumulated between 1.1 and 0.60.5 Ma in a delta on the margin of an arid Pleistocene lake. It is in the San Jacinto Fault Zone area, including in the San Felipe Hills.FossilsIt preserves fossils from the Pleistocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period, during the Cenozoic Era.------St David's Church, Trostrey of sandstoneThe Church of St David, Trostrey, Monmouthshire, Wales, is a parish church with its origins in the 14th century. Its founder may have been Geoffrey Marshall, Lord of Trostrey Castle. The church was substantially rebuilt in the 16th century and restored by John Prichard in 18761877. It remains an active parish church.------Depositional environment of sandstoneThe only paleoenvironmental interpretation based exclusively on specimens from the Santiago Formation is a study of land snails from SDSNH locality 3276 (Member C, Oceanside, San Diego County), which found the distribution of shell sizes and shapes to be consistent with interpretations of subtropical to tropical conditions and paleotemperatures in excess of 25C (77F).------Enekbatus cristatus of sandstoneEnekbatus cristatus is a shrub endemic to Western Australia.The open and sprawling shrub typically grows to a height of 0.3 metres (1ft). It is found on sloping sand plains in the Mid West region of Western Australia around Northampton where it grows in sandy-gravelly soils over sandstone.------Ecological protection of sandstoneTermit is home to the Termit Massif Reserve, a 700,000 hectare faunal reserve established in 1962 to protect endangered antelope and Addax populations.In 2006, the government of Niger applied to UNESCO to have the Termit Massif area named a UNESCO World Heritage site.------Endemic species of sandstoneSome of the important fauna found in the reserve include:Oryx gazella - gemsbokPsammobates oculifer - serrated tortoise,Typhlosaurus lineatus subtaeniatus - Striped blind legless skink,Scelotes limpopoensis albiventris - Limpopo burrowing skink,Colopus wahlbergii wahlbergii - Wahlberg's Kalahari gecko------Partial cast of sandstoneNancy Carroll as Nora CleggGeorge Murphy as Carl BrentRaymond Walburn as CharlieArthur Hohl as JergensJean Dixon as Mae WatersRobert Allen as JoeHarry Beresford as Mr. CleggPaul Harvey as SandstoneLucille Ball as LucilleEadie Adams as SingerClaudia Coleman as FrancineGino Corrado as WaiterAdrian Morris as Pigface------Castle of Amer of sandstoneThe Castle of la Punta de Amer (Spanish: Castillo de la Punta de Amer) is a 17th century fortification located in Sant Lorenzo des Cardessar on the island of Mallorca. The sandstone structure was built in the late 17th century, and is now a protected site.------Harrison Grist Mill of sandstoneHarrison Grist Mill, also known as Morley Grist Mill, is a historic grist mill located at Morley in St. Lawrence County, New York. It was built about 1840 and is a rectangular random ashlar, cut sandstone building with a simple gable roof.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982.------Van Riper of sandstoneVan Riper is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:Charles Gage Van Riper (19051994), speech therapistJacob J. Van Riper (1838?), American lawyer and politicianPaul Van Riper (born 1938), retired Lieutenant General of the United States Marine CorpsPaul Van Riper (19162014), political scientistPeter van Riper (19421998), artist and musician------Allocasuarina gymnanthera of sandstoneAllocasuarina gymnanthera, commonly known as the mallee sheoak, is a species of Allocasuarina genera native to Australia.The dioecious shrub or small tree typically grows to a height of 2 to 5 metres (7 to 16ft). It is found in low open woodland on sandy soils over sandstone ridges in eastern New South Wales------Hohe Loog (Haardt) of sandstoneThe Hohe Loog, is a mountain, 619mabovesea level (NN), in the Haardt, the eastern rim of the Palatine Forest in Germany. The mountain lies within the borough of Neustadt an der Weinstrae in the southern part of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate------Ascent of the summit of sandstoneThe hill may be ascended from the railway halt of Schmilka in the Elbe valley along a red-signed hiking trail that runs past the Kaiserkrone, through Schna and Neue Sorge to the Wolfsberg. It is possible to continue along the path through the forest to the Groer Zschirnstein------Key of sandstoneThe abbreviations used in the table (in alphabetical order) are:NP National Park Saxon Switzerland National Park and Bohemian Switzerland National Park (Nrodn park esk vcarsko)NSG nature reserve with area in hectares(ha) or square kilometres(km) and year of foundation------Monroe County Courthouse (Wisconsin) of sandstoneThe Monroe County Courthouse in Sparta, Wisconsin is a historic courthouse built in 1895, designed by architect Mifflin E. Bell. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982.It is Richardsonian Romanesque in style.It is a three-story red sandstone building with a hipped roof attic.
Minimum Pipe Length for Split Air Conditioning Unit?
mildew probable. Or would be a mechanical subject. If it smells in any respect like some thing burning, close it off. Or it might desire to be pulling undesirable smells from an exterior source. examine exterior the unit to work out in case you will scent the subject.1. Is it illegal to not have an air conditioning unit in a gymnasium?I grew up in western Pennsylvania, and my house was never air conditioned, and my high school gym was not air conditioned. and PA summers and falls were hot when I was practicing for volleyball!! My whole school did not have A/C, in fact. It's a luxury, not a right. That's what fans and water are for.2. Air conditioning condenser fan won't turn on...?Ac Condenser Fan Motor3. If i use the air conditioning in my car will it use some of the gas or will it use the battery power?The ac unit is driven by belts and compressors. There is some toll taking on fuel economy because your engine works a little harder to turn the compressor. Its really boils down to what comfort level you can live with. Since your altenator recharges the electrical system there is really no draw on the battery.... d4. Air conditioning Outside Unit wires cut?You will have to find a small fuse inside of the air handler ....if it does not have one than your looking at replacing the transformer, but just about every unit has a small fuse in it...and thats what you will have to change5. Trouble With my cars air conditioning?Brownie66, on some vehicles it goes from the top of the expansion valve into, rather onto, the high side hose. Other models simply do not have it6. Air conditioning: Like it or hate it?love it. I live in Hong Kong, which is EXTREMELY HOT and HUMID. I can not stand the heat cuz i got eczema. Whenever i got sweat, it makes my eczema worse, so i am not a fan of hot weather7. How do you fix poor home air conditioning circulation?Close the vent in the basement to have more air pushed to the other parts of the home8. How much should air conditioning repair cost?You got off very cheap. As far as a 400% mark up on a capacitor, you did not pay for the capacitor, you paid for the techs knowledge and the fact that he was able to diagnose the problem. You paid for the fuel and wear on his van, the workmans comp, his medical insurance, his tools, his on going education, his 401-K, liability insurance, his uniforms and about 22 other items I will not bore you with. Think about it this way, if I am sick, you are the man. When your home comfort system fails, the HVAC tech is the man. Like yourself, he deserves to make a solid living for the knowledge he has.9. Air Conditioning Question..If you open doors and windows & keep 3 airconditioners on, what happens?Of course it will increase the cost. That chilled air is going outside after you paid for it. The A/C already mixes fresh air into the air it chills so it does not need new hot and muggy air from those windows. You will save money if you have an electrician come in and add an on-off switch at easy-to-reach height that the staff could use to shut off the A/Cs if they want to open the windows.10. What to look for when buying a new furnace/air conditioning unit?First off, shop around because you will find a big price difference. The things you need to know is how much will it cost to run. What is the proper size for your home? This is critical. Do not let somebody sell you an undersized one because the price sounds good. Make sure the installer shows you how to do basic maintenance such as the proper way to clean the evaporator and condenser coils. If you have central heating you will have the ducts already. If not it will be quite abit costlier. Get many estimates and compare them on price, Btu estimates (Do not volunteer this to an estimater), you will be able to weed out some contractors by this. You can search air conditioners online to see the different fomulas used to determine Btu's. If the price they give sounds overwhelming, they have portable a/c units you can move from room to room, but you need to exhaust the heat to the outside. Sound is the other thing you need to consider
How Do You Clean a Bathing Suit in the Washer?
Use a gentle chlorine-removing product like Woolite or Dreft and wash the suit by hand or in the machine, then let it AIR DRY. Do not put a bathing suit in the dryer--the spandex will stretch out of shape and it will pucker and look bad1. What other ways to eat felafel?Try it baked! Baked falafel is still crunchy on the outside and delicious on the inside! Prep Time: 5 minutes Cook Time: 20 minutes Total Time: 25 minutes Ingredients: 1 15-19 oz can chickpeas, drained 1 small onion, chopped 2 cloves of garlic, chopped 1 tablespoons of fresh parsley, chopped 2 tablespoons all purpose flour 1 teaspoon coriander 1 teaspoon cumin 1/2 teaspoon baking powder salt and pepper 2 tablespoons olive oil Preparation: Drizzle olive oil evenly in shallow baking dish. Preheat oven to 350. While oven is preheating, mash chickpeas with mortar and pestle or in food processor. Add onions and garlic and blend. Add remaining ingredients to make a thick paste-like consistency. Shape into ping pong size balls and place in preheated baking dish. Bake for 15-20 minutes, turning halfway through cooking. Serving Baked Falafel Baked falafel can be served the same way fried falafel would be served. Try it in a pita sandwich with tahini and veggies or on a platter with some hummus and a Middle Eastern salad.2. Getting and staying in shape for backpacking?Be nice if their was a "I am going backpacking better take a pill" to get in shape. Since there is not. I have hiked and backpacked for numerous years into remote areas. And one thing that works for me to keep the leg muscles tuned is riding a bike. All year round. And even the stationary ones work quite well. For the shoulder and arms. If you do not have access to a good exercise machine then pick up some hand held weights at one of the marts. Might also buy a set of the ankle weights. Get into a routine of working out with them, and the bike(s). And as the contributor mentioned. Wear your backpack on short walks, hikes. With the approximate weight you will be carrying on your trek. Just getting into a short workout routine you will find your trips much more pleasant3. Was subway tile used in actual subways?Yes that is where the name came from...The original subway tile was so called because of its white, and glossy glazed finish and very thin grout lines used as the wall surface standard in New York City, New York subway train stations in the early 20th can still be seen in most stations today.Today "subway tile" is usually rectangular in shape...however it could also be squareNew York City Subway tiles - WikipediaWas subway tile used in actual subways?4. What happens to fake boobs when you get pregnant?Actually there tends to be less changes during pregnancy with implants present. As you experienced, the skin is stretched while the breast tissue volume is diminished. The result is sagging with loss of shape as well as volume. Because the augmented breasts maintain more of their volume (the implant volume does not decrease), women with implants are less likely to see such drastic changes. Edit: Depending on the procedure, many types of implants still allow you to nurse your baby.5. Are Peloton products worth the hype?It is an expensive exercise bicycle for at home--for some People that is what they wanna do--afterall you cant bingewatch Netflix outside, on a bicycle. Still.The Price to value Ratio of any indoor exercise bicycle is rather poor for most People that just want to stay in shape a bit, even in winter, Cycling outdoors aint impossible and a gym has bikes too---with Benefits n drawback obviously, i like going to a different Special place to exercise-- i see a gym Membership as better value, but if you are completely opposed to using the machines and weights there too, it might not be.For the high Price i also cant see it. You know what hurts after 3 Hours on a bicycle? Your butt. This Thing for this Money should transform into a recumbent on demand and also into a handycycle, if my legs hurt. Hell perhaps it should offer both at the same time.Also i wouldnt want that Thing taking up space. It is a luxury product, in my mind and if you got a really big house and can easily afford it, it might be worth it for you. If you have to think About it for a Moment then it is not. If you reallife bicycle cost under 1200bucks-it is not. See. This is clearly mocking it with some fair Points. Still he probably actually owns it. Look at this huge ing house.It Looks good in this house . He can totally afford it easily, without pain, without having to make any compromise.It was worth it alone for this Video
JET8 Weekly Update April 5th, 2018
This week the spotlight is on #SaveWater, a water awareness campaign for drought-stricken Cape Town; plus, ABC Heinz joins a growing list of brands available through the in-store JETpoints redemption system.JET8 supports Cape Town's water conservation push with #SaveWaterWith a relentless drought afflicting the Cape Town region showing no signs of easing for at least another year, JET8 this week rolled out the #SaveWater campaign in Cape Town, South Africa.The environmental impact campaign provides assets aimed at supporting the local community by raising awareness of the water shortage and offering water saving tips to help through the crisis.Airdrop token distribution to commenceIn the wake of the token generation event, the J8T Bounty Program Airdrop process will commence on the 6th April, 2018, as planned. The process will take up to two weeks to complete and occurs one month after the end of the token generation event.ABC Soy Sauce campaign offers Alfamart redemptionsThis week, ABC Heinz reinforced their confidence in JET8 by offering influencers JETpoint redemptions through Alfamart convenience stores across Indonesia.The announcement coincides with the second ABC Heinz social campaign on Fotoku, following their successful Chilli Sauce campaign. ABC Soy Sauce will build brand awareness and connect a community of busy moms with easy-to-prepare 15 minute recipes aimed at reducing cooking time, to maximise quality family time.Retailers cement support of JETpoint redemptionsRetail connectivity of the JET8 ecosystem has experienced rapid growth, to include a variety of convenience store chains throughout South Africa and South East Asia.JET8 in-store redemption technology has been available in Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia and South Africa through the Shop&Go chain for the past 2 years; in 7-11 stores for over a year; at Circle K locations for 6 months; and in the latter part of 2018 through Watsons, Alfamart, & Shoprite.Whilst over 10 brands have offered product redemptions at 7-11 in conjunction with their social campaigns, the number and variety of products available continues to expand, increasing the value of social currency JETpoints (earned through Content to Commerce technology pioneered by JET8).About usWant to know more about JET8?For all the details, read the Whitepaper and One PagerSubscribe to our subredditFollow us on TwitterJoin our TelegramFind us on GithubStay up to date with Weekly UpdatesFind out more with Dev Updates.·RELATED QUESTIONComparison of Water jet machining, Abrasive water jet machining, pure water jet machining?Water jet machining:water is coming out from the nozzle at a very high velocity which is obtained to be 200 to 400 m per second.Mechanism of material removal: Plastic deformation and fracturing and also called an Etching process.Material Removal Rate is directly proportional to the velocity of the water jet.No tool is used andOnly the nozzle is used.Medium: WaterWear Ratio: Infinity.Abrasive Water jet machining:It is advanced of Water Jet Machining Process which includes Abrasives as a medium.Water Abrasive ParticlesComes out the Nozzle.Applicable for Hard workpieces.The optimum percentage of abrasives - 40 to 60%.Applications: cutting of granite and marble of complex shapes.Detailed Explanation: Click on the link below.Water Jet and Abrasive Water Jet Machining: Adv, Limitations, Applications(GATE)
Things You May Want to Know About Tall Boots
An Introduction to tall bootsVladimir (affectionately known as Didi; a small boy calls him Mr. Albert) is one of the two main characters from Samuel Beckett's Waiting for GodotPersonality of tall bootsThe "optimist" (and, as Beckett put it, "the major character"1) of Godot, he represents the intellectual side of the two main characters (in contrast to his companion Estragon's earthy simplicity). One explanation of this intellectualism is that he was once a philosopher. This would explain his constant references and his attempts to engage Estragon in philosophical/religious debate.Vladimir is deeply concerned with appearances and goes to great lengths to make sure Estragon behaves so that his own dignity is preserved. He is something of a pack rat: he carries all the food the tramps have (though he never eats himself), and has other (to quote the play) "miscellaneous" junk in various pockets. Another important prop is his bowler hat. He claims that it "hurts" him, and is eventually driven to appropriate Lucky's. After long periods of thought (or whenever he is bored) he fiddles with it and plays with the brim. This hat focus (in terms of being head centred) may be interpreted as being representative of his higher status (see Estragon's boots) and his intellectual nature: because of this, he is usually taller than Estragon, but this is a convention of the theatre and is not written in the play.Despite this sometimes peevish and obsessive nature, Vladimir would seem to have a carnal side. He suffers from a venereal disease that causes him pain in his genitals and a need to urinate when he laughs. This might indicate a sexual past: he refers to a woman he knew who "had the clap"...although it is unclear whether this is the cause of his current condition or not. An explanation could be that he could represent the 'masculine' i.e. Vlad the Impaler to Estragon's 'feminine' i.e. Estrogen and that instead of waiting to die, it is their division that is preventing them from being born. His hat could represent a prophylactic.Vladimir has the only social conscience in the play (compare Estragon's misanthropic view of humanity: "People are bloody ignorant apes!"), and it seems that he cares a great deal for the plight of his fellow man: he expresses outrage at Pozzo's treatment of his slave, Lucky, and acts as something of a parental figure to the sometimes childish Estragon. This is not to say Vladimir does not suffer from his own emotional tics. He hates dreams, as they represent a cruel false hope, and he is unable to cope with Estragon's logic, the simplicity of which throws him off. He also does not suffer fools well: Pozzo's decadence and Estragon's crudeness give him much cause for indignation.Quotations of tall boots"Hand in hand from the top of the Eiffel Tower, among the first. We were respectable in those days. Now it's too late. They wouldn't even let us up.""Was I sleeping, while the others suffered? Am I sleeping now? Tomorrow, when I wake, or think I do, what shall I say of today? That with Estragon my friend, at this place, until the fall of night, I waited for Godot? That Pozzo passed, with his carrier, and that he spoke to us? Probably. But in all that what truth will there be? (Estragon, having struggled with his boots in vain, is dozing off again. Vladimir looks at him.) He'll know nothing. He'll tell me about the blows he received and I'll give him a carrot.""Let us not waste our time in idle discourse! Let us do something, while we have the chance! It is not every day that we are needed. Not indeed that we personally are needed. Others would meet the case equally well, if not better. To all mankind they were addressed, those cries for help still ringing in our ears! But at this place, at this moment of time, all mankind is us, whether we like it or not. Let us make the most of it, before it is too late! Let us represent worthily for once the foul brood to which a cruel fate consigned us! What do you say? It is true that when with folded arms we weigh the pros and cons we are no less a credit to our species. The tiger bounds to the help of his congeners without the least reflection, or else he slinks away into the depths of the thickets. But that is not the question. What are we doing here, that is the question. And we are blessed in this, that we happen to know the answer. Yes, in this immense confusion one thing alone is clear. We are waiting for Godot to come""We wait. We are bored. No, don't protest, we are bored to death, there's no denying it. Good. A diversion comes along and what do we do? We let it go to waste. Come, let's get to work! In an instant all will vanish and we'll be alone once more, in the midst of nothingness!"
Scientific Questions Regarding Tectonic Plates and the Energy Created by Its Activities.?
The primary concern of your question deals with the possible ever accumulation of energy buildup. The best way to answer that is to see how energy is stored and dissipated by tectonic movements. Unlimited, runaway, catastrophic energy buildup attributed to tectonic movement is difficult to take place for a number of reasons: you need tremendous generation of energy and more importantly the storage of such energy. Unlike the Toba catastrophe where such generation and storage of energy could take place in form of heat energy in a supervolcano, the movement of plates against each other precludes this scenarios. The slow moving plates usually result in the gradual release of mechnical energy such as two plates moving toward each other to form mountains over eons. The worst scenario of tectonic movement is the build up of elastic energy at a frictioned subduction zone. Take the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 for example, the two ocean plates move in opposite direction. However, at the subduction zone where two plates meet, the plate underneath the top plate "drags"the edge of the top plate due to friction. You can visualize this by extending both of your hands, right on top of left hand. As the fingers of your left hand submerges under the finger of your right hand, it "hooks" the fingernail of the right hand down and causing the right finger to curl down along with it. As the result, vast elastic energy slowly built up to the point when the top plate can no longer bent down and it just snaps suddenly up causing the great tsunami. There are two points to this incident: one is how such vast energy could be generated and stored, but more importantly is the limitation of how much energy could be stored this way, unlike heat energy build up in a magma chamber. As a side note to this story, it also answer your question that the energy would certainly be directed at a specific direction. In this case, the direction is vertical to the fault line; it all depends on how the plates are aligned. To sum it up, the concern is legitimate with tectonic movement accredited earthquake, not not enough to cause a worldwide catastrophic event due to the lack of mechanism to the proper "storage" of vast amount of energy, in contrast with thermal energy. Mechanical energy is gradually build up and released at the same time. Potential energy in the form of elastic property of landmass is not sufficient enough to cause a sudden catastrophic event, the worst case is a high scaled earthquake; which has taken place many times over human history. I am more concerned with the supervolcanoe at Yellowstone which is overdue for its next major eruption - that will truly be a hemisphere, if not global, event. ADDENDAM: The statement "Has not the most castrosphic earthquakes occurred in a predictable direction from the last location of tectonic activity indicating that that energy is only increasing in power?" is somewhat inaccurate. I am not an expert in seismology(my background is in physics and cs) so I can not comment the veracity of "predictable direction"; however, I can comment on the energy part. In order to make that claim, you need to justify HOW the energy is only increasing in power and WITH RESPECT to what. Energy is not free anywhere for you to grab, nor is energy unlimited for you to store in a finite element. Seismology, boils down to the barebone is the study of what happens when two plates collide(you can not get simpler than that.) Energy only comes in a limited number of forms, and in this aspect, the only form relevant are mechanical energy(in moving the plates), thermal energy( in result of friction between plates), and elastic potential engery( in the compression and stretching of plates); that is IT. You do not store energy in neither the mechanical nor the thermal part because they are converted immediately into motion and heat respectively. The ONLY possible way for you to store energy is in the compression and stretching of a piece of landmass. Take two pieces of Snickers Bars for example. When they are slammed head-on into each other, they get squeezed and compressed along the axis of collision as the strain inside builds up under external stress. There is no shape change, not until their shapes are deformed and bulge out vertical to the axis of collision when the yield stress is reached. However, such compression does not go on FOREVER, the bars will eventually break apart when the deformation exceeds the limit in which the ingredients the bar is made of can hold its shape. The same thing holds true for two pieces of landmass, each piece of landmass can only holds a FINITE amount of energy that is determined by its modulus of elasticity( or more appropriately modulus of bulk for 3D object). In the same manner as the Snickers bar, the energy is held IN the compression/folding of the landmass. In this stress-strain relationship, the landmass will eventually break after the initial deformation when it reaches the "ultimate stress point". If you need more elaboration on this, look up stress-strain curve in a book. In other word, it does not matter how big a landmass it is, everything has a ultimate stress point and will cause the object to buckle eventually. In the case of tectonic activity, the plate initially and gradually stores the energy in the folding at a fault line, once no more energy can be stored the folding part snaps and releases all the energy manifested as earthquake. So there is no such thing as ever-accumulating energy. After the snap, the landmass is NO LONGER the shape it was and the energy build up from folding will take in possibly a different or same place all over again from SCRATCH. Thus, to answer you question, the energy is only increasing in power FROM zero after each snap. And rememer, the energy stored is in the FOLDING at the fault line and that energy is ALWAYS limited subject to the dimension and material composition at that location does not matter if the landmass is the continent of Africa or not.1. Question about temperature and heat energy?Temperature and heat are two different things. It's easy to line them up by temps because they are given. Heat is different. A large mass holds more heat than a small mass at the same temp. Even though the ocean seems "cold", an ocean is huge and holds tremendous heat at any temperature. Between the two beakers, the larger mass (volume) holds more even though the temp is lower. As for the copper, all metals have low "specific heat capacities". In fact the same mass of water can hold about ten times the amount of heat as copper. Pretty obvious that it has the lowest heat energy in this problem. Here are the answers: - a beaker containing 100cm3 of water at 100 degrees C (a - 3) - a beaker contiaining 500cm3 of water at 90 degrees C (c - 2) - an ocean with an average temp of 5 degrees C (d - 1) - a 100cm3 lump of copper at 95 degrees C (b - 4)2. Is Industrial Waste Heat Energy Recovery the same as Cogeneration or CHP Combined Heat/Power?You should provide the general area where the speaker is needed. That might give you more responses. Try your state environmental agency web to see if they have anything. Sometimes states post success stories for such projects.3. temperature and heat?? energy transfer concept?The room will always get warmer with or without the door open. That's because the electric motor driving the compressor, pumps and relays is not 100% efficient, and some electrical energy will be converted to thermal energy which heats up the room regardless. So how do you cool the room with a refrigerator? I ask my chem students this every semester. Answer: Cut a hole in then wall just big enough to slide the refrigerator though sideways, so that the bottom half (with the motor and compressor) and the coils on the back are outside, and the freezer door is inside. Then open the freezer door and enjoy the cool air. By the way, you can make a heat pump and warm your house in the winter by reversing the refrigerator.
Explanation of Relationship Between Pressure and Poiling Point of Water [closed]
Explanation of relationship between pressure and poiling point of water [closed]The boiling point of any substance may be defined as 'the temperature at which the pressure of its own vapors become equal to the external pressure'. So for example in the case of water, at 100oC, the vapor pressure become equal to approx. 1 atm. Now if you increase the pressure further, you would need to heat the sample more such that the new pressure is balanced. Hence the boiling point is increased. The opposite happens for a decrease in the external pressure— — — — — —How can dynamic and static pressure be explained?You are very close. Your explanation of static pressure is correct, but not your dynamic pressure. Ram air pressure is what the pitot tube measures, in other words the total pressure experienced. It is your airspeed gauge which measures dynamic pressure by mechanically (in the case of a traditional pitot-static system) subtracting static pressure from ram air pressure. If I was explaining this to a layman I would say that ram air pressure is equivalent to sticking your hand out the window of a moving car, while static pressure is the pressure inside the car. That's a bit of an over-simplification as the pressure inside the car will be lower than outside due to the movement through the air, but it gets the point across— — — — — —Types of Pressure TransducerHi friends, In this article, I am discussing some important types of pressure transducer, pressure transducer working principle, advantages, disadvantages, and applications. So let us start. Pressure transducers are used to measure pressure. In a pressure transducer, firstly, the pressure is converted into a displacement by an elastic element like Bourdon tube, diaphragm, bellows, etc. And then this displacement is converted into a change in some electrical parameter. Being proportional to the applied pressure, this change in the electrical parameter is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. Some principle types of pressure transducer are as under: Strain gauges can be used for pressure measurement also. In this method, a strain gauge is attached to a pressure sensing diaphragm. When the pressure is applied to the diaphragm, the strain gauge is strained. This causes a change in resistance of the gauge which can be measured by a Wheatstone bridge. The detailed working of strain gauges has been discussed earlier. You can refer to that article for details. The advantages of this type of pressure transducers are: However, there are some disadvantages too. These are: • the need for fixed supply, In this type of pressure transducer, the pressure is converted into a displacement by a suitable primary sensing element such as a diaphragm, Bourdon tube, etc. The magnitude of output voltage depends upon the position of the wiper. In this way, pressure variations are get converted in the form of output voltage and can be measured by a suitable instrument. These are simple, cheap and can be made quite linear. But wear and tear due to frequent movement of the wiper, high noise level, and limited resolution are the main limitations of this method. In this type of pressure transducer, the pressure causes a change in the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor. The change in capacitance of the capacitor is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. The figure shows the different parts of a capacitor type pressure transducer. It is essentially a parallel plate capacitor having one fixed plate and the other free to move as the applied pressure changes. The movable plate is usually in the form of a diaphragm. When pressure is applied on the movable plate, the distance between the plates of the capacitor changes. This causes a corresponding change in the capacitance of the capacitor. The change in capacitance can be determined and is a measure of the magnitude of applied pressure. Generally, capacitor transducer forms, one of the arms of a bridge circuit. When no external pressure is applied, the ammeter connected in the bridge shows no deflection i.e. output voltage is zero. When pressure is applied, the bridge becomes unbalanced and causes some output voltage corresponding to the applied pressure. Thus output voltage of the bridge will be a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. Usually, the meter is calibrated to indicate the pressure directly. The main advantages of this type of pressure transducer are: However, they have limited range and severely affected by dirt and other contamination. They are mostly used in motor vehicles. The most commonly used inductive type transducer is the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The pressure can also be measured by an LDVT. It has been discussed earlier where it was used to measure displacement. You can refer to that article for details. To measure pressure, with an LVDT, the pressure is converted into displacement by a Bourdon tube. This displacement causes the movement of the magnetic core of the LVDT. Since the exactly similar secondary coils of the LVDT are connected in phase opposition, the magnitude of the output voltage will depend upon the position of the magnetic core. Initially, when no pressure is applied, the core will remain in the central position and the magnitude of the induced voltage in each secondary is the same due to their symmetrical position with respect to the core. On the application of pressure, the core shifts from its central position; causing the induced voltages in the two secondaries to differ. In this condition, the output voltage is equal to the difference in the two secondary voltages and will vary linearly with the displacement of the core. Thus output voltage of the LVDT is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. Advantages of this type of pressure transducers are: • the linear variation of output voltage with displacement up to 5 mm and, However, there are some disadvantages too: • performance is affected by stray magnetic fields and temperature variations, • a large displacement is required for reasonable amount of differential output. The piezoelectric transducer can be used to measure pressure. The working of a piezoelectric transducer has been discussed earlier. For details, you can refer to that article. Piezoelectric transducer transducers are used to measure high pressure that changes very rapidly e.g. pressure changes inside the cylinder of a gasoline engine, compressor, rocket, etc. The pressure changes in these devices are so rapid that ordinary pressure transducers can not respond to them. Pressure below atmospheric pressure is called low pressure. This range extends from the normal pressure of 760 mm of mercury column down to 10-8 of the mercury column. No single transducer can cover this full range. A large number of transducers have been developed for covering different ranges of low pressure. Here I will discuss the Pirani gauge only. This gauge can measure pressures ranging from 10-1 to 10-3 mm of the mercury column. For pressures above 1 mm of the mercury column, the thermal conductivity of a gas is independent of pressure. But for the pressures below 1 mm of the mercury column, it decreases linearly with the decrease in pressure and vice-versa. This property of gases is utilized in the Pirani gauge to measure the pressure. At the pressures below 10-3 mm of Hg of the mercury column, the heat conduction becomes very small and the gauge does not work. A Pirani gauge consists of a wire filament enclosed in a chamber having a side tube for connection to the pressure source. And the gauge is connected in the Wheatstone bridge as shown in Figure. Here, the gauge forms one of the four arms of the bridge. Initially, when current passes through the filament, an equilibrium temperature is reached shortly. When no pressure is applied, the bridge is balanced and no current flows through ammeter. When the source whose pressure is to measured is connected to the gauge, the pressure inside the chamber is increased. And the thermal conductivity of the gas surrounding the filament will increase. This means that gas will conduct more heat from the filament, thus lowering the temperature of the filament. The decrease in filament temperature will lower its resistance. The reverse will when the pressure inside the chamber, decreases. This change in resistance of the filament makes the bridge unbalanced and current flows through the ammeter connected in the bridge. The deflection of the ammeter is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. This ammeter can be calibrated to read the pressure directly. The advantages of Pirani gauge are simplicity, easy to use, ruggedness and cheapness. However, its disadvantage is that its calibration depends upon the type of gas in which the pressure is measured. Thanks for reading about "types of pressure transducer".
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