Knowledge Related to Glucose 1-dehydrogenase (NAD

In enzymology, a glucose 1-dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

D-glucose NAD displaystyle rightleftharpoons D-glucono-1,5-lactone NADH HThus, the two substrates of this enzyme are D-glucose and NAD, whereas its 3 products are D-glucono-1,5-lactone, NADH, and H.

This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD or NADP as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-glucose:NAD 1-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include D-glucose:NAD oxidoreductase, D-aldohexose dehydrogenase, and glucose 1-dehydrogenase (NAD).

• Other Related Knowledge of enzymes

Enzymes from T. aquaticus of dna polymerase i

T. aquaticus has become famous as a source of thermostable enzymes, particularly the Taq DNA polymerase, as described below.

AldolaseStudies of this extreme thermophilic bacterium that could be grown in cell culture was initially centered on attempts to understand how protein enzymes (which normally inactive at high temperature) can function at high temperature in thermophiles. In 1970, Freeze and Brock published an article describing a thermostable aldolase enzyme from T. aquaticus.

RNA polymeraseThe first polymerase enzyme isolated from T. aquaticus in 1974 was a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, used in the process of transcription.

Taq I restriction enzymeMost molecular biologists probably became aware of T. aquaticus in the late 1970s or early 1980s because of the isolation of useful restriction endonucleases from this organism. Use of the term Taq to refer to Thermus aquaticus arose at this time from the convention of giving restriction enzymes short names, such as Sal and Hin, derived from the genus and species of the source organisms.

DNA polymerase ("Taq pol")DNA polymerase was first isolated from T. aquaticus in 1976. The first advantage found for this thermostable (temperature optimum 72C, does not denature even in 95 C) DNA polymerase was that it could be isolated in a purer form (free of other enzyme contaminants) than could the DNA polymerase from other sources. Later, Kary Mullis and other investigators at Cetus Corporation discovered this enzyme could be used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process for amplifying short segments of DNA, eliminating the need to add E. coli polymerase enzymes after every cycle of thermal denaturation of the DNA. The enzyme was also cloned, sequenced, modified (to produce the shorter 'Stoffel fragment'), and produced in large quantities for commercial sale. In 1989 Science magazine named Taq polymerase as its first "Molecule of the Year". In 1993, Dr. Kary Mullis was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work with PCR.

Other enzymesThe high optimum temperature for T. aquaticus allows researchers to study reactions under conditions for which other enzymes lose activity. Other enzymes isolated from this organism include DNA ligase, alkaline phosphatase, NADH oxidase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, amylomaltase, and fructose 1,6-disphosphate-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase.


Discovery of enzymes

NAPE-PLD is an enzyme activity - a phospholipase, acting on phospholipids found in the cell membrane. It is not homology but the chemical outcome of its activity that classes it as phospholipase D. The enzymatic activity was discovered and characterized in a series of experiments culminating in the 2004 publication of a biochemical purification scheme from which peptide sequencing could be accomplished. Researchers homogenized (finely ground) hearts from 150 rats and subjected the resulting crude lysate to sucrose sedimentation at 105,000 x g to separate out the cell membranes from the remainder of the cell. The integral membrane proteins were then solubilized using octyl glucoside and subjected to four column chromatography steps (HiTrap SP HP cation-exchange column, HiTrap Q anion-exchange column, HiTrap Blue affinity column, Bio-Gel HTP hydroxyapatite column). Each of these separates the different types of membrane proteins into different sample containers when the proteins are eluted from the column over time, and by measuring the activity of samples in each container it was possible to track which ones received the active enzyme. Measurement of the enzyme activity was done by thin layer chromatography of a radioactive substrate sensitive to the NAPE-PLD enzymatic activity: Cleavage of the substrate affected where it appeared on the plate when the radiation was detected on a bioimaging analyzer.

The result of this extensive procedure was still not a pure protein, but it produced a limited number of bands by SDS-PAGE, and one band of 46 kilodaltons was found to correlate in intensity with the enzymatic activity. This band was cut out from the gel and digested with trypsin, and peptides from it were separated from one another by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The resulting fragments were then microsequenced by an automated Edman degradation. Three corresponded to vimentin, an intermediate filament protein of 56 kDa believed to be a contaminant, and the other two matched the cDNA clone subsequently identified as NAPE-PLD.

Once this clue had been obtained, the identification could be confirmed by a less onerous procedure: Overexpression of the putative NAPE-PLD cDNA in COS-7 cells yielded a strong NAPE-PLD enzymatic activity, whose characteristics were shown to be similar to those of the original heart extract.


Notable publications of enzymes

BooksEnzymatic Reaction Mechanisms (1978). Published by Freeman Inc (.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted; .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit; .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none; .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33; .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritISBN978-0716700708).

Antibiotics: Actions, Origins, Resistance (2003), by Christopher Walsh. Published by ASM Press (ISBN978-1555812546).

Post-translation Modification of Proteins: Expanding Nature's Inventory (2006), by C.T. Walsh. Published by Roberts and Company (ISBN0974707732).


Biography of enzymes

Alexander Dounce was born on December 7, 1909, in New York. He began his undergraduate studies at Hamilton College but later moved to Cornell University, where he also did his doctoral studies in the lab of James B. Sumner, a pioneer in protein crystallization. Dounce received his PhD in organic chemistry in 1935, the title of his thesis being "Study of dihydrofurans and the dehydration rearrangement of 2,3-ethylenic 1,4-diols". According to Marshall W. Nirenberg, another biochemist who knew Dounce personally, "during his Dounce's final doctoral exam when his doctoral committee got together to ask him questions after he had finished his thesis research, his mentor, Sumner, asked him the question, 'How do proteins synthesize other proteins?' He Dounce said that question remained in his mind ever since then."

After his graduation, Dounce stayed in Sumners lab and did work on enzymes, particularly on enzyme isolation and purification. Together with Sumner, he achieved the first crystallization of the enzyme catalase in 1937. In 1941, Dounce moved to the Department of Biochemistry at University of Rochester Medical School, where he worked on the mechanism of uranium poisoning for the Manhattan Project. After the end of World War II, he focussed on studying cell nuclei and particularly the isolation of intact nuclei from tissue, which was a new field of research at the time. In 1952, Alexander Dounce and Ernest Kay, who was Dounce's first PhD student, published a new method for DNA isolation and purification from nuclei employing sodium dodecyl sulfate that became widely used.

Also in 1952, Dounce wrote a review article in which he, as one of the first scientists to do so, proposed that DNA might serve as a template for the synthesis of RNA, which in turn serves as a template for the synthesis of proteins. This order of synthesis, which has later been termed the "central dogma of molecular biology" by Francis Crick, is textbook knowledge today. However, it was not until 1958, when Crick coined the term central dogma and described the concept in more detail, that it gained widespread acceptance.

In the same review article, Dounce was also one of the first scientists to propose a genetic code in which nucleotide triplets code for each of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. He correctly assumed that genes consist of nucleic acid sequences which determine the amino acid sequences of proteins, and that a protein's sequence determines its function. Based on these assumptions, Dounce speculated that, during protein synthesis, each amino acid would pair with an individual nucleotide; the two other nucleotides surrounding it would determine the specificity of the binding. While the actual mechanism turned out to be different, Dounce's hypothesis that nucleotide triplets code for amino acids was correct, and his speculations "helped lead to the deciphering of the code." In the words of Nirenberg, "In the review he was far ahead of everybody else .... He predicted that the code would be a triplet code, and that, as I recall, RNA was the template for protein synthesis. But he buried this article in the proceedings of an Oak Ridge symposium that nobody read. ... By and large, the ideas were good, although he was wrong on minutiae. I was amazed when I finally read it."

When James D. Watson and George Gamow founded the RNA Tie Club in 1954, Dounce became one of its members; his designation was GLN (glutamine).

Dounce's work on the isolation of cellular organelles, particularly nuclei and mitochondria, led to the development of the Dounce homogenizers in 1954. A Dounce homogenizer or "Douncer" is a glass mortar and pestle with a very small clearance between the mortar and the pestle in Dounce's original design as little as 0.0005 inches or about 13 micrometers. This allows for tissue and cells to be lysed by shear stress while leaving the smaller organelles intact. Dounce homogenizers are still commonly used today to isolate cellular organelles.

When Dounce's former mentor, James B. Sumner, died in 1955, Dounce wrote Sumner's obituary in Nature.

For the remainder of his career, Dounce continued his research on nuclei and their contents, catalase, and protein crystallization.

Dounce died on April 24, 1997, in Rochester, New York. He was survived by his wife, Anna Elizabeth Dounce, who was the daughter of botanist Donald Reddick, and by their three children Helen, Eric, and George.

enzymes related articles
What Are Some Good, Fat-burning Foods?
Introduction to Enzymes | (S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase of Enzymes
Urgent Easy Question (just Wondering If Im Right)?
What Is the Role of Enzymes in a Human?
Which of the Following Best Describes the Purpose of the Detergent?
you might like
Products OEM YOGA Products Women's Active wear
Woman Yoga Crop Sports Bra Running Tops Seamless Gym Fitness Clothing1
(factory: OEM) breathable. tracksuits, lawn tennis sports wear1
Men sleeveless hoodie tank top sports gym vest workout

Copyright © 2020 Concises YuGa Sports | Sitemap