Is It Really Necesary Cumpulsrw to Add a Resistor in Series to Led?

Usually the resistor is there to limit the amount of current passing through the LED based on its rated voltage and the supply-side voltage

1. LED strip going with Music beat?

Open the amplifier cover, locate the final power output stage transistor. Mount LED strip across collector and emitter. It shall lights up with the music tone

2. Which series of events led to World War I?

the event that led to the start of the WWI was assassination of Franz Ferdinand on the 28th on June 1914 in Sarajevo(Bosnia)

3. What do I need to drive my big LED chip?

Normally LED's of most any size are driven by a constant-current source, so the voltage can vary (to some degree) yet the LED will maintain the same brightness. LED's in series need more voltage but still an LED is a current driven device. Suggest you look up "LED Drivers" and you will find hundreds of options, from ICs to ready-to-use modules that adjust brightness and allow for series and/or parallel operation (expensive, so go basic first). Cheap LED flashlights often just use resistors but they waste unused power as heat and do not keep the LED current constant. Also, having the option to boost the voltage to put many LEDs in series is a big plus because the LED current remains the same for the entire string.Parallel strings do consume more current (the sum of all the strings) but that maybe going beyond what you had in mind. Spend the money for the right LEDs and the right LED power supply (adjustable) and have good results the first time. Later on you can think about series/parallel expansion

4. LED lights and batteries?

Your link is not working properly, so I am not sure what sort of LED you are planning to use. However, all LEDs have certain tolerances that should be adhered to. The general common red LEDs that people are most familiar operate with about a 2-3 volt drop and around 10 mA, though you can occasionally go above 20 mA and still have a functioning light. To be sure you have enough voltage you can probably use a 9V battery wired to all six LEDs in parallel, and add a resistor in series with the battery to ensure that the current stays at a safe level. [edit] Ah, managed to get the site working. Still do not know what you are going to buy, but all of the component LEDs have pages with their specs. For example, the first white LED they have for sale has a maximum voltage of 3.8 V and a current of 20 mA. Good luck!

5. Thoughts on a female led marriage?

Female Led Dating

6. Back pain has led to tingling and numbness in legs?

Back Pain Numb Leg

7. What led to the demise of KooKooRoo?

Americans are extremely price sensitive and quality insensitive. In the end there just were not enough people willing to pay a higher cost for a healthier menu (we were and were sad to see them die.)Keep in mind too that successful franchises like McDonalds are not popualr only because they are cheap. Crap food is genuinely addictive. We crave fats and sugars and the more we ingest the more we crave.The same unfortunately isnt true of vitamins and other healthy things

8. What factors led to the success of Christianity in Rome?

The endorsement of Emperor Constantine. And the popularity of the religion with the powerless, who had numbers on their side

9. led zeppelin's the best band ever and the beatles could be the best if ringo would've been great drummer?

Good question! Sarcasm aside, based solely on technical proficiency, neither of those bands are any good. In Led Zeppelin, the only one who was really respectable at his instrument was Bonham. Page was versatile, but that just made him average at a whole lot of stuff instead of good at a few things. And everybody knows The Beatles all sucked at their instruments. Robert Plant's voice is annoying. The only reason these bands are considered "great" is because of their MASSIVE influence. But influence, since it says nothing about the things that really count in songwriting (talent, originality, etc.) should not count for anything and has only served to condition idiots like you into bowing down to certain godbands like LZ, The Beatles (let's be honest, nobody truly likes both those bands at the same time. The only reason people like both is because they've been told they were great musicians, even though they were not . LZ fans and The Beatles fans should hate each other but instead they are the same people) Jimi Hendrix, Pink Floyd, etc. Now, back to the argument. You base all your statements on these band members' technical proficiency. I would like to see Jimmy Page trying to play ANY modern metal song. He could not do it. Same with Bonham. His technique is the best?WRONG. Brann Dailor's technique is better. Stewart Copeland's technique is better. Michael Giles, Neil Peart, Dave Lombardo, Scott Shelton, and so many others are more skilled drummers. Their bassist? He did not do ****. Compare him to the skill of an upright bassist from any psychobilly band. Do you know how hard that instrument is to play? First of all there's no frets, so you have to memorize the position of every note on every string and judge by distance. Second of all, the strings are so taut that it takes a tremondous amount of strength just to pick one note. Frankly, any upright bassist is better than an electric bassist. Let's see here. What I am saying is, based on talent, metal bands are probably the best bands. Based on song-writing ability, prog bands are probably the best bands. Based on originality, experimental bands are the best. Led Zeppelin and The Beatles are none of those, so why are they considered the best? It's because of influence. But influence says nothing about how good a band is, it just says they were ahead of their time, which is meaningless.

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Is Fiji Water the Crack of Bottled Water?
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Will an LED Light Up a Water Flow.?
Why not? ... as long as the intensity is high enough to account for attenuation, ... and the electrical parts are insulated from the water.1. why does an led light have a full spectrum while a hydrogen lamp does not?A LED light has a limited spectrum, not a full one. What is a hydrogen lamp, never heard of this.2. help! bought led light strips but they're hot?You applied excessive voltage to them. Most LED strips are rated for more voltage than they can actually handle, so series resistance is a god idea. The value required will vary with the current drawn, so, as does anyone else, you will need to know the current rating for the strip and use Ohm's Law to determine a suitable value. Do not forget to figure out an appropriate wattage rating for the resistor... A resistor used with an LED strip will need to be rated for more power than will a resistor for a single LED. Whatever the calculated dissipation is, use a resistor rated for at least 4 times that figure.3. China LED Lighting Market, Volume by Applications, & CompaniesGet Free Customization in This Report In China, people are adopting LED lighting at a rapid pace because of the gradual reduction of LED lighting price. Many Chinese LED light manufacturer are increasing their production capacity because they are getting an optimal subsidy from both central and local government. The favorable government policies of China are helping the LED manufacturer and distributor to run their business smoothly, and it will further boost the LED lighting market in the forecast period. Besides, the Chinese government has also implemented LED lighting standard that will help to produce the supreme quality of the LED product. China LED lighting market is going to cross the US$ 29 Billion mark by the year-end of 2025. The growing demand for LED lighting in China stimulates LED light market. Chinese LED manufacturer mainly focused on Research & Development of LED light; cost reduction, energy efficiency, and environmental friendly, long life. In China, the demand for lower-end LED product is high, but there is also stiff competition in this segment. In China, penetration of LED lighting is growing at a rapid pace due to supportive government policies that help out LED manufacturer and distributor to a great extent. The Chinese government banned incandescent bulbs over 100 watts in the year 2012. After that, it banned 15 watts in the year 2016. Besides, China is also looking for a framework to replace the fluorescent bulb with an LED. In China, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and the Ministry of Finance (MOF) have taken several measures to administer subsidies for proliferating LED Lighting products. Consistent Reduction in the Price of LED lighting products stimulates the Market to Expand In China, technology mechanization in the LED lighting industry has increased over the period. Therefore the average price of LED lighting product has declined and reached to an affordable price as compared to conventional lighting products. According to Renub Research Analysis, the market of LED lighting product will grow during the forecast period, especially in residential segments due to the price reduction of LED. Key Companies China LED Lighting Sales In this report, we have taken the top five Key players in the China LED Lighting market include Cree Inc., Philips Lighting, MLS Co. Ltd., Foshan Electrical & Light, Osram. 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Led Lights& Live Plants?
in all probability... yet examine the particularly ability output, no longer only the kind of LEDs, that enormously plenty meaningless. distinctive LEDs have distinctive ability rankings and lightweight output. you will desire to be waiting to look up the Lumens score on the producer's information superhighway web site, and study that to what your vegetation want. If the numbers are close, then decide for it. Ian1. Pink Floyd ,The Doors, Or Led Zeppelin?pink floyd and the doors2. Converting headlight from sealed to LED?Swap the sealed beam light for one that has the same shape, but uses a housing3. Signal volume LED ArrayAside from Andy's option, you could always go with the LM3915. Or the internal setup of the LM3915. It's just a bunch of comparators. You could even use op amps as comparators, if you wire them correctly.Or you could use opamps. Both of these are VU meters, and are Logarithmic, not linear.4. Stuff about under-car led lights?As long as the lights under the car are not on while your driving it is perfectly legal, if they are on while your driving expect a heavy fine and possibility of your car being towed5. How do you custom led tail lights?In all states, brake lights must be red. Any other color will get you ticketed the first time and your car impounded the second. They can in fact impound it the first stop6. Has reservation in studies and jobs led to a rise in corruption in India?Mostly NO.Dalits and other depressed classes still today are not policy makers. The policy and operations were solely run by brahmins, Kshatriyas, vaishyas and other dominant communities.Corruption/bribery: If you are saying corruption as bribery, it has increased in the recent years. But just look at who is paying to who is general. Common corruption in India happens between 2 middle class people. One may be applying for a job in government. The applicant who will be a forward caste or dominant caste will be paying the bribe to a officer who is also from forward or dominant caste. Where do dalits & depressed classes come into this corruption picture?Reservation in education: How can reservation in education affect corruption? wrong question. If you feed poor dalits food, then will that also lead to increase in corruption ? NOO. .reservation in educational institutions means you are educating somebody in equal terms with others. This has nothing to do with corruption. Teaching/Educating is not a sin and has no ill effects or side-effectsDalits at work place: In fact i have seen many dalits when they get into a job, they are usually scared for their job and how others would perceive their work and they are more sincere. This is not the case with all dominant community members. Dominant community members knows tricks of the trade and will find short cuts.Reservation in Jobs:I think you are referring to government jobs here. There is reservation in central and state government jobs. The cut-off for OBCs and SCs are lower than general category. Just because they get in with lower marks, that does not mean they are ineffective in work and involve themselves in corruption.You can get a government job through reservation at entry level in most cases. But once you get the job, all caste people have to prove their worth in work in order to get promoted or be given additional responsibilities. Only work effectiveness and work experience leads to promotion in government office mostly. Dalits for example get into a entry level position but do not receive much promotions because of the work place discrimination or their personal work ineffectiveness. Still today most officer level and manager level people are from dominant castes. We all know in government offices that clerks and junior officers cannot take bribes from us without the blessings of senior level managers and directors. Most senior managers receive part of the bribery cut. The senior managers and directors are mostly form dominant communities. In this case who is actually responsible for corruption then?Conclusion:-There is no direct relationship between reservation at work place and increase in corruption. Even if there is one, it cannot be validated ,since dalits & depressed classes do not occupy most higher government office positions. -There is no direct relationship between reservation at education and increase in corruption. No relationship at all in fact.- There are is no proof to say workers who came through reservation are more corrupt than workers who came through general category.-Corruption is epidemic issue. It starts at a personal level from giving a bribe to a cop for our negligence purposes. We should fight it as a whole society and not take pot-shots at the already poorer classes
How to Make a Handmade Bathroom Cabinet with Led Mirrors
While not everyone needs a light mirror, it is true that everyone can appreciate the benefits that light mirrors offer. If you understand the benefits of simple mirrors and other less expensive styles, you will know if they are suitable for your needs. Even if the advantages seem small at first glance, high-quality light mirrors can be extremely beneficial for your home and your life.With a wide selection of bathroom mirrors from brands such as Ally Brass, Amanti Art and FrameMyMirror, you will find something you love. If you think you will enjoy the illuminated mirrors in your bathroom, you need to understand some of the benefits they can offer for your home.While a single bathroom mirror can make a significant stylistic contribution, adding multiple mirrors can add its own decorative sheen. The use of multiple mirrors is especially useful when you have a large vanity, especially if it has more than one sink. The bigger the better, and you can even double the vanity by sharing it with another mirror.For example, you might prefer the look of a slim oval bathroom mirror that is no wider than your washbasins because the lighting above the head creates shadows that are counteracted by the light from the cosmetic mirror, which makes precise work such as tweezers and flossing much easier.Wall mirrors are the most common type of bathroom mirrors and come in a variety of sizes, shapes and styles, making it easy to place them for interior design considerations. They have the advantage of being readily available, but installation difficulties vary depending on whether the mirror frame is frameless (see below for more information on the frame materials used). Whether the mirror hangs on the wall, swivels on an adjustable base, is attached to a cupboard or door or rests on the floor, all factors play a role in the shape and function of your bathroom mirror.What we are not aware of is that bathroom mirrors are often used in our daily lives. They are placed above the sink in the bathroom and used to apply make-up, check the look, repair the hair and help you look presentable. For this reason, it is important to choose a cosmetic mirror that matches the decoration style of your bathroom.An LED mirror is better in beauty and aesthetics than an ordinary one. As a trendy addition to the bathroom, LED mirrors offer many other advantages which normal mirrors can't even compete with. Frameless LED mirror designs are characterized by modern, clean lines and large surfaces.Brushed metal wall mirrors are a contemporary design that complements various styles of design. The beauty of these mirrors is that they can be combined with mirrors or glass to create a modern urban design in your bathroom, while still offering you accurate reflections of yourself. Framed or painted to suit your space, LED mirrors are customizable to your contractor.By using this style of mirror in your bathroom, you will make the most of the space you have and give your room a modern, minimalist feel. If you choose a mirror that is too small, your bathroom mirror will look out of place and disappear by itself. You don't have to have a mirror on the wall, unless you're aiming for something very special.If you want a massive mirror that never dislocates, I think this mirror, which I think is an option, is the best alternative. In the bathroom of a mountain cottage, we wanted a huge mirror that reflected the light from the trees (or at least the frame of the mirror) when I was hot and feverish, so I thought that would work. I think it is also the best solution for a door, because with this massive, pretty mirror you not only want to hide your vitamin C coat of arms, but also to strip away all the garbage.Fab Glass Mirrors is committed to providing its customers with elegant and durable wall mirrors. By selecting the right LED technology and combining it with elegant designs, we create illuminated mirrors that are durable, environmentally friendly and energy efficient. We will guide you through how to make LED mirrors and how to place them on the wall.As you can see, wall mirrors are a reality that is very common in life, whether you are out and about in your job or business every day.There are inexpensive full-length mirrors, large and small versions and bespoke cuts depending on the size of the bedroom. You can upcycle discarded mirrors from savings bank branches, install the lights on your existing mirrors and create something very special for your needs and style. If you're looking for an illuminated make-up mirror or a unique make-up mirror in the bathroom, they can cost more than $100, and you may not have the aesthetic you prefer.You can restore the look by upgrading your existing builder-class mirror tiles, or you can use the step-by-step tutorial the blogger has created here. All you need to do to recreate this look with your existing mirror is glue on a couple of globe lights.This design choice creates the illusion that there is more space, but adding LED mirrors feels like adding square film material. LED mirrors flush with the lintels for a better visual line through your bathroom.I know they're a nuisance to designers, decorative mirrors, sinks and so on, but if you have to keep them somewhere, it doesn't make sense. SLR reflexes hang everywhere and take up a lot of space. Builders often choose shelves with LED mirrors for storing and designing elements.Many LED mirror designs also have built-in smart outlets to work without getting tangled up in cords. Larger rooms can benefit from fixed installations, while smaller ones gain the flexibility of small, mobile LED mirrors. If there are multiple rooms in the house, the use of LED mirrors to apply a similar model to each room is an easy way to improve your interior design game.
If You Hate Led Zeppelin
I used to hate Led Zeppelin when I was a little kid... but that was because the only song I can recall my dad playing around me was Stairway To Heaven. (I really really dislike that song. :) It could be because they are listening to bad songs. Or it could be just because they do not like their music, or Robert Plant's voice. Could be anything really... it's all a matter of personal taste.1. What led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire?The fact of the matter is that the decline of the Ottoman Empire was not only 1 thing but a compendium of things, the growing strength of The English , French, Germans, Russians and Americans, the idea of Nationalism in a Multicultural society, a political system that had internal conflict by those in power to empower the cultures of their own origins, not being able to afford to keep up with growing technological advancements both at home and in occupied lands. And an array of many other things it is so complex that you can never pin it down to 1 single thing2. ARE C9 LEDbig lots had them where i live3. Led in wall plug?"ywait' gives a very good answer. Newark Electronics is a good source for such devices as well. These lamps are composed of several LED's, and some other components. They came into common use in the mid 1990's. I am going to guess that the others based their responses on 1 LED being powered by 110Vac, which without the needed voltage drop to a safe level would cause a nice, but brief explosion.4. Will an LED light strip pulse?It really cannot be determined with certainty from the info in the link.5. Will this led last without blowing?there are terrible people in each single place. the real challenge is to locate an exceedingly sturdy guy or woman are ason you particular can not tell with the help of in basic terms finding. do no longer provide-up and be a pissy, nasty guy to each woman. write her off and do not EVER look returned. the sturdy existence you deserve will locate you6. Connect an Arduino directly to RGB LED stripThose LED strips are multiple parallel chains of 3 LEDs in series, with a 150 resistor for each chain. The chains are arranged as common anode, and the chains are grouped into the three colours for the cathodes.You require a power supply with enough current to supply all the LEDs (such as the 3A one supplied in the package). Further, you require a method of switching each of the three channels, such as n-channel MOSFETs, which can handle enough current for each channel (one MOSFET per channel) - that is, 1A per channel if the whole strip takes 3A (but you can "derate" it by providing capacity for more current which helps alleviate some heat dissipation problems).As long as the MOSFETs are logic level (such as the IRLxxx series) you can then switch them directly using the PWM outputs of the Arduino7. led flash lights?I agree with you. The only two reasons I can think of are: *To some people, blue may feel softer and "moodier" and not as harsh as white *Blue is different to white, so it can be used to indicate or signal something different, although red would be a better color for signaling, as blue is too close to white.8. What exactly is a PAR type LED lamp, how does it differ from R/BR type LED & CFL lamps?There is a lot of misinformation in the answers provided, in regards to LED bulbs. The difference between PAR & BR LED bulbs is minimal, and mostly cosmetic. Basically, the PAR bulb has a flat surface, while a BR bulb has a rounded surface. Given the same lumens, the same size, the same color temperature and the same lumens per watt, it really does not make a difference whether it's a PAR or BR.The flat-look PARs may be a little more modern looking, but to simulate an older incandescent-looking bulb with the round, curved glass, I actually prefer the BR bulbs. But it's mostly a choice on the look of the bulb, not the look of the light it produces. Again, I am just talking about LED bulbs. Answers reflected here (no pun intended) seem to come from information using older incandescent or halogen technology
The Small QR Code Scanning Module Is Installed on the Medical Equipment
In the era of mobile Internet, the "smart medical" relying on bar code automatic identification technology is coming to us! In this situation, rakinda, an Internet of things application expert, specially launched lv3096 small QR code scanning module, which is installed on the medical equipment, integrating QR code recognition and data transmission performance. Medical staff can realize mobile ward rounds, mobile care and The medication status of each patient is detected in real time.At present, mobile medicine has been implemented in most medical industries. With the medical equipment scanning module as the core, bar code acquisition and data transmission hub, the real-time data communication function with bar code wristband system and medical care system has been established, which has laid the foundation for the realization of medical automation. As long as the barcode wristband is scanned, it can track and monitor the situation of each patient in real time, and match the medicine, which promotes the reform and development of medical informatization.Why is lv3096 small QR code scanning module installed on medical equipment so popular?(1) Leading international industrial image recognition technology intelligent graphic recognition system, with fast scanning speed and high accuracy, it is easy to read low-quality barcodes (such as stain codes, faded label barcodes, bending barcodes and fold codes) and high-density one-dimensional barcodes in medical environment, so as to easily solve the identification problems of wrist band barcodes, drug barcodes and medical device barcodes; (2) It meets the electromagnetic interference requirements of relevant medical devices. It adopts a sterilized body shell, which is strong and fall resistant. The small and fashionable shape structure allows it to be embedded into all medical devices, medical tablets, PDAs and other handheld terminals, which is easy to install and integrate; (3) The medical equipment scanning module opens communication interfaces such as USB port and ttl232 serial port, which meets more interface requirements and is convenient for secondary development.In a word, the common handsets and intelligent devices in life are inseparable from lv3096 barcode scanning module, which can play its QR code hardware decoding function, and it can be compatible with more systems. For the medical industry, it is undoubtedly an innovative change.
What Is Your Attitude Towards Foreigners in Your Country?
By definition, a foreigner is "a person born in or coming from a country other than one's own."At this point I'm pretty sure it comes down to your definition of your "own country", I'm Irish and Hungarian, but i wasn't born in- and have never been to- either of those places. I think i should be classified as a foreigner there, and i believe where you grow up is more "your own" country than a place where one of your parents grew up but that you've never been to, or only been to sparingly. I live in the U.S., where the only people who are truly native are Native Americans. If you believe in order to not be a foreigner to a certain place your lineage must be traceable back very far and only contain people who live in that same place, then you might be surprised to realize that by your definition the large majority of everyone in america, if only by technicality, are foreigners. By that definition the only people who are truly not foreign are native americans.All that said:I don't make generalizations about races/groups of people, let alone an entire classification such as "foreigners", and if you want to talk about who.I don't like particular people, and particular ideas, like all human beings. I never make a broad statement such as "i don't not like this particular kind of person" like many humans do. Let alone something like "all foreigners are bad" (that is an even broader statement.)The sentiment "There are bad cops and good criminals" said by fictional character Mike Ehrmantraut essentially means there are corrupt officers of the law, and criminals with comparatively very good moral compasses.I think that applies to many things in life and this is one of them: There are good foreigners and bad natives. and vice versa. There is no group of people i have a negative attitude towards, i only have negative attitudes towards individuals. Just like not all cops are good, and not all criminals are bad, it is not prudent to make any kind of broad judgement on "foreigners". Once you realize its not gonna work out to make have a broad opinion on a group like "officers" or "criminals" and to decide they're all evil demons, or all of them are saints, you should quickly realize its gonna work out even more poorly to try to judge an even broader group, one of which many officers and criminals come, such as "foreigners". All that said il tell you my general perception of each new person i meet is based on how they behave, and i try to have a positive outlook going in. If there is no reason to believe a person is bad, i assume they are good. So my attitude towards every foreigner i am yet to meet, is there is no reason to believe they are any different from anyone else i have ever met.• Suggested ReadingWill the third front led by Telangana CM KCR succeed?History tells us that third fronts (similar coalitions) have struggled to complete full terms at office in center.Talking about K.Chandrashekar Rao (KCR), he has been doing an excellent job as the first Chief minister of Telangana. His knowledge on the issues, resources, opportunities and challenges across the length and breadth of the state is exemplary. This very deep knowledge and understanding of the region is the key in the policies and welfare schemes of his government. His experience in governance is helping in framing the right policies to benefit the state in long term providing permanent systematic solutions to several issues. The results have started to show in few aspects but the overall performance can be judged only when all these policies and projects show ground-level improvement in the lives of people.Every state and region in India has its own unique problems and opportunities. The success of regional parties in few states is mainly because these regional parties have understood these specific needs of the respective states. This is very true in case of revolutionary parties like KCR's TRS which was formed with an aim of separate Telangana state. To certain extent, same is the case with Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) in Delhi.The situation right now in Telangana is that TRS, in all certainty, is likely to easily win the assembly elections slated to be conducted in 2019. KCR has capable alternative candidates for the position of Chief Minister in K. Taraka Rama Rao and Harish Rao, ministers and family members. This might prompt KCR to look beyond state politics if he wishes so . KCR has stressed, in his recent address to the TRS parliamentary party, the injustice and flaws in the system of center's support to the states. He emphasised that to change this he would be ready to lead a third front, if required. Ability wise, there is no doubt that he could be the game changer in national politics. The question is whom will he partner with and how will the dynamics play in the third front with lot of parties with various individual goals.One of the major reasons for KCR government's successful (guess so) performance so far is the authority and control of KCR over his party and government. Will he be able to have the same in the coalition of several parties is an important question.The other major aspect is that national politics are now majorly playing around the individual leaders rather than the parties. Can KCR position himself as a national level leader who can be seen as an alternative to the existing options is another question.There will be several similar questions that require answers to answer this question of whether KCR will succeed leading third front, if at all one comes up.The state of Telangana is eagerly moving ahead with lot of hope for the future. The TRS so far has shown that it could take the state in the right direction under the leadership of KCR. One can only hope that this is not compromised in search of other goals of KCR and TRS------Why do US conservatives love Israel so much?Generally the reasons others have given to this question (which appears anew every few days in one wording or another) are accurate. I have one more answer to propose.Many Americans have supported the Zionist project since its inception in 1897. It strikes me that the pioneering spirit of the Zionist Dream is very compatible with the American Dream. Americans to this day admire the sacrifice and determination of those who answered the call to "go West and grow with the country". And I think they admire the Zionists who took upon themselves a remarkably ambitious mission and succeeded beyond their wildest dreams.The Zionist pioneers set out to the place Mark Twain described as a desolate wasteland with a dream of building a vibrant modern country. When the Jews laid the cornerstone of Tel Aviv there was nothing but sand dunes by the sea. The city resembled any frontier town in the Wild West, as did a dozen other Jewish towns that were established since the late 1880's. Today Tel Aviv is a modern city comparable to cities throughout the western world.The real pioneers were small groups of youths who came from far away with no knowledge of farming, who were deposited on a few acres of undeveloped dirt, with some tents and farming implements, and a determination to learn and work hard, not for their own personal fortune but to do their part to restore the home of the entire Jewish People for eternity. And their determination paid off. They worked hard and built themselves productive happy and proud communities, and soon people from all over were coming to learn from them about modern agriculture, and about the the Kibbutz experience.In a very short time the Zionist movement organized every aspect of Statecraft. They organized industries, agriculture, transportation, economy and banking, housing and municipal services, education including universities, hospitals, revitalized the Hebrew language, even promoted literature, music, dance, theater. And they learned to defend themselves from those neighbors who felt understandably threatened by their achievements.It's easy today, in retrospect, to question whether the ends justified the means, whether you are referring to American "Manifest Destiny" or to the establishment of the State of Israel. But for the people who took part in these endeavors failure was not an option. They were committed to the achievement of their historic objectives. Nothing and no one could be permitted to get in the way of the success of their mission.I recently watched a National Geographic series about the colonization of Mars. The question that was asked over and over was whether it was worth the dangers and cost, and the answer was an emphatic yes by all of the people involved in the project. This pioneering spirit is part of the human psyche. Few have the courage to take the risks to be pioneers, but even those who don't can't help but admire those who do. I think that is part of the reason many Americans identify with Israel and feel the need to give Israel their support.
The New Trend in LED Lighting Industry, Is 'night Light'
Background of night lightThe event was the second that the promotion has held in Hamburg, following UFC Fight Night 93 in September of 2016.A light heavyweight bout between former title challenger Volkan Oezdemir and former UFC Light Heavyweight Champion Maurcio Rua was expected to headline the event. The pairing was previously scheduled in the co-headliner slot at UFC Fight Night: Maia vs. Usman, but was delayed after Oezdemir was pulled from that event due to alleged visa issues stemming from a previous legal transgression, restricting his travel to Chile. The bout was again cancelled when Oezdemir was removed in favor of a bout against fellow former title challenger Alexander Gustafsson at UFC 227. He was replaced by Anthony Smith.A bantamweight bout between Davey Grant and Manny Bermudez, was previously scheduled for UFC Fight Night: Thompson vs. Till. However, Grant pulled out of the fight after being diagnosed with a staph infection, and the bout was scrapped. The pairing was left intact and rescheduled for this event.Ilir Latifi was scheduled to face former light heavyweight title challenger Glover Teixeira at the event. However on July 5, it was announced that Latifi suffered an injury and was pulled from the fight. He was replaced by The Ultimate Fighter: Team Edgar vs. Team Penn light heavyweight winner Corey Anderson.Alan Jouban was expected to face Danny Roberts at the event, but pulled out on July 12 due to a neck injury. He was replaced by promotional newcomer David Zawada.------Mixed martial arts career of night lightEarly careerAfter earning three wins in amateur MMA, Roberson made his professional MMA debut May 2015. He fought sporadically over the next two years, obtaining a record of 50.Dana White's Tuesday Night Contender SeriesRoberson appeared in Dana White Contender Series - Season 1, Episode 3 on July 25, 2017 against Ryan Spann. He won the fight via a guillotine choke in round one and he was award the UFC contract.Ultimate Fighting ChampionshipHe made his debut on November 11, 2017 against Darren Stewart at UFC Fight Night: Poirier vs. Pettis. He won the fight via rear-naked choke submission in the first round.Roberson faced Cezar Ferreira on May 12, 2018 at UFC 224. He lost the fight via technical submission in the first round.Roberson faced Jack Marshman on November 3, 2018 at UFC 230. He win the fight via unanimous decision.Roberson agreed on a short notice fight against Glover Teixeira in the light heavyweight division at UFC Fight Night: Cejudo vs. Dillashaw on January 19, 2019. Roberson replaced Ion Cutelaba in the fight who had to pull out due to an injury. Despite hurting Teixeira with elbows early in the round, Roberson lost the fight in the first round by submission via arm triangle choke.Roberson was scheduled to meet John Phillips on July 13, 2019 at UFC on ESPN 13. However, it was reported that Phillips was pulled from the bout due to injury and he was replaced by Wellington Turman. Roberson won the fight via a controversial split decision.Roberson faced promotional newcomer Roman Kopylov on November 9, 2019 at UFC on ESPN 21. He won the fight via a submission in round three.Roberson was expected to face Makhmud Muradov on April 18, 2020 at UFC 249. However, Muradov was forced to pull from the event due to COVID-19 pandemic travel restriction, and Roberson was pulled from the event and was scheduled to meet Marvin Vettori on April 25, 2020. However, on April 9, Dana White, the president of UFC announced that this event was postponed to a future date Instead Roberson was scheduled to face Marvin Vettori on May 13, 2020 at UFC on ESPN 9. At the weigh-ins Roberson weighed in at 187.5 pounds, 1.5 pounds over the middleweight non-title weight limit of 186 pounds. He was fined 20% of his purse, which was given to opponent Vettori, and the match was to proceed at a catchweight. However, Roberson was removed from the fight due to rhabdomyolysis. The fight was rescheduled to June 13, 2020 at UFC on ESPN: Eye vs. Calvillo. At the weigh-ins on June 12, Roberson once again missed weight, weighing in at 190.5 pounds, 4.5 pounds over the non-title middleweight limit of 186 pounds. The bout proceed as a catchweight bout and Roberson was fined 30% of his purse. He lost the fight via a submission in round one.------UFC Fight Night: Shogun vs. Smith of night lightUFC Fight Night: Shogun vs. Smith (also known as UFC Fight Night 134) was a mixed martial arts event produced by the Ultimate Fighting Championship held on July 22, 2018, at Barclaycard Arena in Hamburg, Germany.------Kickboxing career of night lightRoberson was called on short notice to fight K-1 legend Jrme Le Banner at Fight Night Saint-Tropez 4 on August 4 in Saint-Tropez on his retirement fight. Although he was making his professional kickboxing debut, with only three amateur fights, he managed to upset Le Banner and score two knockdowns, first was ruled as a slip and during the second the referee proceeded with a slow count about 30 seconds that allowed him to recover, leading the fight to a controversial decision loss.
P0.45 Design Scheme of RGB LED Full-color Screen
introductionCore features of the patented technology of the invention:① The two electrode pads of the wafer are arranged on the two diagonal circular missing side walls, and the pad spacing and area are large; ② Multilayer structure to reduce the spacing between wafers in the same layer.This paper summarizes the key technical points of the invention, introduces and analyzes the technical scheme of P 0.45 and P 0.9 RGB display screens and P 0.4 backlight. Mass production can be realized by using existing mature technical methods and equipment.Technical overviewThe technical barriers of mini / Miro LEDs with small spacing come from:① The LED chip size is too small (the electrode pad spacing is too small and the area is too small); ② The next door neighbor is too close (too close). Welding of tens of millions of pads, yield (cost).1. Core features of the patented technology of the invention(A) The two electrode pads of the wafer are arranged on the two diagonal circular missing side walls.The array is provided with a plurality of chip sockets, and the LED chip is embedded in the chip socket. A connecting pad is arranged on the two corresponding diagonal side walls of the wafer insert, and the two electrodes are welded with solder paste.(B) Multilayer wafer carrier structure.The above figure (cross-sectional view) shows that there are three layers, so the wafer density of each layer is only one third, and the distance between wafers increases. The three layers are R layer, G layer and B layer respectively, forming a full-color display screen.2. Analysis and description of technical advantages:(A) The two electrode pads are arranged on the two diagonal circular missing side walls, (1) the spacing between the two electrode pads on the wafer may be increased at most; (2) The area of electrode pad is increased by using the side wall, which is conducive to welding.The LED chip is embedded in the chip socket, and the two electrodes are welded with solder, (1) there is no gold wire, (2) the two electrodes are easy to be firmly welded, (3) it is easy to repair the defective chip and solder joint (as shown in the right figure). Therefore, 100% yield is easy to achieve.(B) Multilayer wafer carrier structure, the wafer carrier is equipped with thin film transistor (FTF), (1) the distance between wafers is increased, which avoids the interference between electrode welding lines of adjacent wafers and is conducive to reducing pixel spacing, (2) the carrier welded with LED wafer (hereinafter referred to as LED single-layer wafer) is an independent diaphragm (which can be designed to be not associated with other wafers), It can be powered on separately for test and repair. After passing the test, it can be integrated with other LED single-layer chips to achieve 100% good products.P 0.45 RGB LED full color screen design scheme1. 0.2x0.2 LED chip0.2x0.2 is a conventional LED chip. The difference is only the diagonal gap, and the electrode pad is arranged on the side walls of the two gaps. Laser drilling and hole wall metallization are conventional technologies.2. Wafer carrierThe thickness of the wafer carrier is consistent with that of the LED wafer (0.1mm). Laser drilling, hole wall metallization, flexible material and thin film transistor (TFT) are all conventional technologies.3. Insert the wafer into the wafer socket (crystallizing)The dimension of the wafer insert is 0.26x0.26, and there is a gap of 0.03 around the wafer and the wafer insert, that is, the precision error of crystallization is ± 0.03, which belongs to the conventional precision.4. Electrode pad solder paste weldingScreen printing or ink-jet spraying of solder paste is adopted. The area of solder paste coating is as large as possible. The surface tension of liquid tin is used to condense and penetrate into the gap between the two pads. Therefore, the allowable error of solder paste positioning is increased. In the above design, the allowable error of solder paste positioning is ± 0.1mm, which belongs to the conventional technical requirements.Apply excess solder paste and remove excess solder with air blowing or tin suction roller, which is easier to ensure welding and reduce accuracy requirements.The equipment, technology and process involved in the above scheme are conventional.5. RGB three-layer splicingThe epitaxial layer of the first layer (layer 1) faces backward, similar to the so-called flip chip, and the epitaxial layers of layer 2 and layer 3 face forward. The figure shows that the RGB three-layer wafers are partially stacked between the front and rear.The RGB LED full-color screen of P 0.45 can be realized by using conventional equipment, technology and process.Before splicing, each single layer has been tested and defect repaired. Therefore, 100% yield can be easily obtained.P0.4 backlight design schemeThe LED chip specification also adopts 0.2x0.2.The size of the wafer insert is 0.28x0.28, and there is a gap of 0.04 around the wafer and the wafer insert, that is, the precision error of crystallization is ± 0.04, and the precision requirements are reduced.Only two layers of LED single-layer disk (wafer carrier chip) are required. The epitaxial layer of layer 1 faces back and layer 2 faces forward. The fluorescent layer can be set by silk screen printing or sticking fluorescent diaphragm.Before splicing, each single layer has been tested and defect repaired, so 100% yield can be easily obtained.P0.9 design scheme of RGB LED full-color screenThe LED chip specification also adopts 0.2x0.2. RGB three chips are in the same layer, that is, only one chip carrier is adopted, and the three chips have common wiring pads.There is a gap of 0.04 around the chip and the chip insert, and the precision error of crystal striking can be within ± 0.04, which is conventional technology.The chip carrier is not provided with TFT, but is provided with a driving PCB board, the chip carrier is provided with an external bonding pad, and the driving PCB board is connected with the corresponding bonding pad, Φ For pads with a diameter of 0.2, the dislocation error of the upper and lower pads is allowed to be 0.1mm, which is conventional technology.Before welding with the driving PCB board, the wafer carrier with the wafer welded has completed the testing and defect repair process, so the yield is 100%.Post order and statementThe RGB LED full-color display of P 0.45 can fully meet the needs of 4K large screen TV. According to the patented technical scheme design of the invention, using the current conventional technology and equipment, it can achieve 100% yield, effectively reduce the cost and solve the problem that the price affects the market. Hundreds of billions of big markets will be detonated.The above display belongs to mini led. The patent of the invention can also greatly reduce the cost of large spacing LED display screen, and will also subvert the process of large spacing LED display screen.The patent of the invention will promote the development of LED display, backlight and panel industry into a new era. The biggest benefit is the LED epitaxial wafer factory with serious overcapacity.Here, it is specially declared that the LED chip structure shown above must be licensed within the protection scope of the invention patent (invention patent No.: zl20101055508.6, ten years ago).
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