Introduction to Water Pollution,Prevention by Human Intervention, Modern Science and Safeguards of W

Prevention by human intervention, modern science and safeguards of water pollution

In situ conservationWith advances in modern bioscience, several techniques and safeguards have emerged to check the relentless advance of genetic erosion and the resulting acceleration of endangered species towards eventual extinction. However, many of these techniques and safeguards are too expensive yet to be practical, and so the best way to protect species is to protect their habitat and to let them live in it as naturally as possible.

Wildlife sanctuaries and national parks have been created to preserve entire ecosystems with all the web of species native to the area. Wildlife corridors are created to join fragmented habitats (see Habitat fragmentation) to enable endangered species to travel, meet, and breed with others of their kind. Scientific conservation and modern wildlife management techniques, with the expertise of scientifically trained staff, help manage these protected ecosystems and the wildlife found in them. Wild animals are also translocated and reintroduced to other locations physically when fragmented wildlife habitats are too far and isolated to be able to link together via a wildlife corridor, or when local extinctions have already occurred.

Ex situ conservationModern policies of zoo associations and zoos around the world have begun putting dramatically increased emphasis on keeping and breeding wild-sourced species and subspecies of animals in their registered endangered species breeding programs. These specimens are intended to have a chance to be reintroduced and survive back in the wild. The main objectives of zoos today have changed, and greater resources are being invested in breeding species and subspecies for then ultimate purpose of assisting conservation efforts in the wild. Zoos do this by maintaining extremely detailed scientific breeding records (i.e. studbooks)) and by loaning their wild animals to other zoos around the country (and often globally) for breeding, to safeguard against inbreeding by attempting to maximize genetic diversity however possible.

Costly (and sometimes controversial) ex-situ conservation techniques aim to increase the genetic biodiversity on our planet, as well as the diversity in local gene pools. by guarding against genetic erosion. Modern concepts like seedbanks, sperm banks, and tissue banks have become much more commonplace and valuable. Sperm, eggs, and embryos can now be frozen and kept in banks, which are sometimes called "Modern Noah's Arks" or "Frozen Zoos". Cryopreservation techniques are used to freeze these living materials and keep them alive in perpetuity by storing them submerged in liquid nitrogen tanks at very low temperatures. Thus, preserved materials can then be used for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer, and cloning methodologies to protect diversity in the gene pool of critically endangered species.

It can be possible to save an endangered species from extinction by preserving only parts of specimens, such as tissues, sperm, eggs, etc. even after the death of a critically endangered animal, or collected from one found freshly dead, in captivity or from the wild. A new specimen can then be "resurrected" with the help of cloning, so as to give it another chance to breed its genes into the living population of the respective threatened species. Resurrection of dead critically endangered wildlife specimens with the help of cloning is still being perfected, and is still too expensive to be practical, but with time and further advancements in science and methodology it may well become a routine procedure not to far into the future.

Recently, strategies for finding an integrated approach to in situ and ex situ conservation techniques have been given considerable attention, and progress is being made.

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Urbanization of water pollution

With urban growth, the urban-rural gradient has seen a large shift in distribution of humans, moving from low density to very high in the last millennia. This has brought a large change in environments as well as society.

Urbanization brings transformation of natural habitats to completely altered living space which sustains large human populations. The increasing congregation of humans accompanies the expansion of infrastructure, industry and housing. Vegetation and soil are mostly replaced or covered by dense grey materials which alter the previous space. The process of urbanization is still rapidly expanding already established cities or building new ones.

Three factors have come to the forefront as the main evolutionary influencers in urban areas: the urban microclimate, pollution, and urban habitat fragmentation. These all influence; natural and sexual selection, mutation, gene flow or genetic drift. Which are the processes that drive evolution.

Urban microclimateA microclimate is defined as any area where the climate differs from the surrounding area, and modification of the landscape and other abiotic factors contribute to a changed climate in urban areas. The use of impervious dark surfaces which retain and reflect heat, and human generated energy lead to an urban heat island in the center of cities, where the temperature is increased significantly. And a large urban microclimate does not only affect temperature, but also rainfall, snowfall, air pressure and wind, the concentration of polluted air, and how long that air remains in the city.

These climatological transformations bring selection pressure and certain species have shown to be adapting to the urban microclimate.

Urban pollutionSpecies are evolving (or failing) to cope with contaminants in their environment in higher concentrations than naturally would occur. This is especially true in urban environments, since humans produce pollutants en masse when their population density rises.

There are two main forms of pollution which lead to selective pressures: energy or chemical substances. Energy pollution can come in the form of artificial lighting, sounds, thermal changes, radioactive contamination and electromagnetic waves. Chemical pollution leads to the contamination of the atmosphere, the soil, water and food. All these polluting factors can alter species behavior and/or physiology. Which in turn can lead to evolutionary changes.

Urban habitat fragmentationThe fragmentation of previously natural habitats into smaller pockets which can still sustain organisms leads to selection and adaptation of species. These new urban habitats come in all shapes and sizes, from parks, gardens, plants on balconies, to the breaks in pavement and ledges on buildings. The diversity in habitats leads to adaptation of local organisms to their own niche. And contrary to popular belief, there is higher biodiversity in urban areas than previously believed. This is due to the numerous microhabitats. These remnants of wild vegetation or artificially created habitats with often exotic plants and animals all support different kinds of species, which leads to pockets of diversity inside cities.

With habitat fragmentation also comes genetic fragmentation, within small isolated populations, genetic drift and inbreeding results in low genetic variation of the gene pool. Low genetic variation is generally seen as bad for chances of survival. This is why probably some species arent able to sustain themselves in the fragmented environments of urban areas. However, in populations with lower genetic variation in the gene pool and less gene flow between populations this could provide opportunities. For certain smaller populations occupying niches, adaptive radiation may happen quicker.

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Course of water pollution

The main stream of the Wainhanga originates at Mahadev hills near Gopalganj, Seoni District, on the southern slopes of the Satpura Range of Madhya Pradesh.

The river has developed extensive floodplains characterized by sweeping graceful meanders, low alluvial flats, and slip-off slopes. The river has high banks, which measure from 10m (33ft) to 15m (49ft) on either side. The northern part is surrounded by the Mahadeo hills and Satpura Range, with an average elevation of 625 m (2,051ft) above sea level. The valley of the Wainganga River is forested and sparsely populated.

Balaghat and Bhandara are the major cities located on the bank of the Wainganga River, while Pauni and Desaiganj are smaller urban centers on the smallest of the river banks. The Wainganga River is the water lifeline of these cities and their primary source of water. The Government of Maharashtra is developing a protection wall for Bhandara to protect it from heavy flooding.

This flood protection wall encircles Bhandara from east to south.

TributariesThe Wainganga river receives numerous tributaries on both sides and drains the western, central, and eastern regions of the Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Bhandara, Gondia, and Nagpur Districts of Maharashtra. The main tributaries of the Wainganga River are the Thel, Thanwar, Bagh, Chulband, Garhavi, Khobragadi, and Kathani, which meet on the left bank; and the Hirri, Chandan, Bawanthari, Kanhan, and Mul joining on the right bank.

ThanwarThe Thanwar River joins the Wainganga at the Nainpur Forest Range, at the border of the Seoni District and Mandla District, before the Dhuty Dam on the Wainganga. It originates from the forest of Chiraidongri in the Mandla District. There is a medium-sized dam at the village of Bejegaon on the bank of this river, which opened in 1980. River water stored in the dam is used to irrigate the farmland of 50 villages. The Halon River and the Chakor River (catchment from Nainpur Forest Range) are some of the well-known tributaries to this small, fully utilized river. Geographically, this river misses a few miles due to a Satpura foothill to become the Narmada's first major tributary. The main towns on this tributary are Nainpur and Pindrai. The river has been in recreational use since ancient times, as it was on the route of pilgrimage from South to North India. The village Jhulpur, on the bank of this river, was a stoppage and temple town. The major bridge over the river is at the town Pindrai by Indian Railway (Jabalpur-Gondia rail track).

KathaniThe Kathani River originates in the Pendhri Hills at Dhanora and joins Wainganga near Gadchiroli city.

HirriThe Hirri River originates in Moondapar, Seoni District and flows through Jeonara. It joins Wainganga near the Dhuty Dam.

ChandanThe Chandan River is an important river of the Balaghat District. It flows through Waraseoni. The Nahalesara dam is built upon the Chandan River. One of the major features along the river is the Rampayali's temple.his meet in vainganga river in Maharashtra mahalgaon (Murdara) village

BawanthadiThe Bawanthadi River is an important river which originates in the Kurai plateau of Seoni District in Madhya Pradesh. It divides Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra near Mowad and Bonkatta. The Bawanthadi River joins Wainganga after flowing 48km south, near Mowad, Madhya Pradesh.There is a middle size dam over this river which irrigate farm lands of M.P. and Maharastra.

KanhanThe Kanhan River is Wainganga's longest tributary, at 275km (171mi). It rises in the hills at the southern edge of the Satpura Range in the north-western region of Chhindwara District.

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