Introduction to Knoll | Youth of Knoll

Youth of knoll

Stephen was the youngest of five sons born to Charles I of Hungary and his third wife, Elizabeth of Poland. Of the five, Louis, Andrew and Stephen survived infancy. Stephen was born on "the feast of St Stephen" (that is on 20 August) in 1332, according to the Illuminated Chronicle. He was named for the first king of Hungary, Stephen, who had been canonized in 1083. He was baptized by Archbishop Csand Telegdi. A priest of Bohemian origin, Ladislaus, was one of his tutors.

Stephen was first mentioned in a royal charter of his father on 12 May 1339. In the document, he was styled as Duke of Slavonia, but he did not assume direct government of the province: the bans (or governors) continued to govern Slavonia on the king's behalf. In July, Stephen's maternal uncle, Casimir III of Poland, named Stephen's mother and father or one of their sons as his heir if he died without a legitimate heir. Decades later, the Polish historian, Jan of Czarnkw, claimed that Charles had decided to secure a throne for each of his sons and wanted to make Stephen his heir in Hungary. Next year, a Venetian envoy recorded that Charles was planning to visit Dalmatia along with his wife and "their younger son" who must have been Stephen.

Charles I died on 16 July 1342. During the first years of the reign of his brother, Louis, Stephen was only sporadically mentioned in official documents. At Stephen's request, the judge royal, Paul Nagymartoni, deferred a hearing in 1343 and exempted a nobleman of paying a fine in 1344. Stephen was regularly mentioned in his brother's charters of grant from May 1345, evidencing that he had become a member of the royal council.

Stephen's brother, Andrew, who had married Joanna I of Naples, was murdered on 18 September 1345. Louis I of Hungary accused Joanna of staging the plot against Andrew. Louis entered into correspondence with Pope Clement VI, demanding her punishment. From early 1346, Louis also urged the pope to grant the Kingdom of Naples to him or to Stephen. The pope styled Stephen as duke or duke of Transylvania in his letters addressed to Louis, but the Hungarian documents consequently referred to him as the "duke of all Slavonia" in 1345 and 1346. Louis conquered significant territories during his first campaign in southern Italy in 1347 and 1348, but after he returned to Hungary, Joanna and her second husband, Louis of Taranto, expelled Louis' troops from most fortresses.

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Printers' International Specimen Exchange of knoll

The Printers' International Specimen Exchange was an influential annual subscription publication for the "technical education of the working printer" that ran from 1880 to 1898. Conceived around the time of the Caxton Celebration of 1877, it was an ambitious expansion of a "Specimens" column then appearing in the Paper & Printing Trades Journal, a widely read trade publication issued by London printers and publishers Field & Tuer and edited by Andrew White Tuer.

The official proposal was made in a letter written in 1879 by Thomas Hailing of the Oxford Printing Works, Cheltenham, to Tuer, who replied that if 100 printers would participate, his firm would handle the arrangements. Printers, and their employees and apprentices, were invited to send in examples of their work in the number of anticipated subscribers for each year. In return, they received a bound, collated set of all specimens accepted. The cost was one shilling (three shillings for American subscribers). For an additional cost, the finished volume was bound in half vellum laced with catgut.

Response to the call for specimens for the first issue exceeded all expectations, and publication, originally announced as biannual, was quickly changed to annual. John Ruskin praised the goals of the project in a letter quoted in the introduction to the first volume, and a copy of Volume VI was accepted by Queen Victoria.

Initially most of the contributions came from Great Britain and the United States, but by the mid-1880s the Exchange included as many as 400 specimens from around the world. For the first three years, Tuer and his editorial assistant, Robert Hilton, commented frankly and often amusingly on each specimen, but with the increase in both number and international participation, detailed critiques became burdensome and, perhaps, politically sensitive. Volumes IVIII (18801887) were published by Field & Tuer at the Leadenhall Press, London, and the content represented both old-style and new "Artistic" printing.

After Volume VIII, Tuer turned publication over to Hilton, who had moved on to become editor of a new journal, the British Printer, published by the firm of Raithby & Lawrence. The Exchange began to decline under Hilton's editorship, leaning heavily toward the new "Leicester Free Style" of typography developed by the firm's foreman Robert Grayson, and the venture ended a few years after Raithby & Lawrence sued Hilton for violating an agreement not to start a competing publication. The last two (much slimmer) volumes each covered two years, with the final one not issued until early 1898, containing only 123 specimens.

At its best, the Printers' International Specimen Exchange taught a generation of printers how to examine learn from printed work, and it inspired similar ventures in Germany, France, and the United States.

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Author of knoll

The author of the Gesta is unknown, but is referred to by historigraphic convention as "Gallus", a Latin word for a "person from France or Gaul" (though also, potentially, a forename). Author's anonymity though, was kept on perpous due to hishers (as mentioned in the work) desire to dedicate the work to God only- a notion widly popular in the medival times. When polish bishop- Marcin Kromer completed his work- Folio 199, he left a footnote in it that credited Gallus as the author of Gesta which he brought up in the work. It roughly read: This work is by Gallus, I recon he was a French monch, the one who lived during the times of Bolesaw III. It was the very first time when the author was referred to as "Gallus".

In Gottfried Lengnich's printed edition, Lengnich named the author as "Martin Gallus" based on a misreading of Jan Dugosz, where Gallus was conflated with Martin of Opava. Martin Gallus became the standard name in German scholarship for some time to come, though this identification is now rejected by most historians. Historian Maximilian Gumplowicz identified the author as Baldwin Gallus, allegedly Bishop of Kruszwica, though likewise this theory has failed to gain general acceptance.

There have been frequent attempts to identify Gallus' origins from clues in the text . Marian Plezia and Pierre David both argued that Gallus came from Provence in what is now southern France, and was closely connected with the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Gilles. Another historian, Karol Maleczyski, argued that the evidence suggests a connection with Flanders, while Danuta Borawska and Tomasz Jasiski have argued based on stylistic evidence that he was connected with Venice and that he authored an anonymous translatio of St Nicholas. Marian Plezia argued in 1984 that his writing style suggests an education in one of the schools of central France, likely Tours or Orlans.

Plezia and others further argue that Gallus' extensive knowledge of Hungary testify to connections there, postulating a connection to the Benedictine monastery of Somogyvr in Hungary, a daughter-house of St Gilles'. He appears to have been closely connected to the Awdacy clan, a kindred of Norse or Rus origin who had been successful under Boleslaw II, and who had been exiled to Hungary but returned to prominence in Polish affairs during the reign of Boleslaw III. As he stated that "the city of Gniezno ... means "nest" in Slavic", it is thought that the author may have known the language of the country. All that is certain is that he was a monk and a non-Slav living in Poland, perhaps on a Polish benefice.

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LocationMaps of knoll

The knoll is located at 623714S 601229W / 62.62056S 60.20806W / -62.62056; -60.20806Coordinates: 623714S 601229W / 62.62056S 60.20806W / -62.62056; -60.20806, which is 620 m southwest of Mount Bowles, 3.1km northeast of Orpheus Gate, 3.57km east by north of Rezen Knoll and 1.12km southeast of Chirpan Peak (Bulgarian topographic survey Tangra 2004/05).

L.L. Ivanov et al. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands. Scale 1:100000 topographic map. Sofia: Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, 2005.

L.L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich, Robert, Snow and Smith Islands. Scale 1:120000 topographic map. Troyan: Manfred Wrner Foundation, 2010. .mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritISBN978-954-92032-9-5 (First edition 2009. ISBN978-954-92032-6-4)

Antarctic Digital Database (ADD). Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). Since 1993, regularly upgraded and updated.

L.L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Smith Island. Scale 1:100000 topographic map. Manfred Wrner Foundation, 2017. ISBN978-619-90008-3-0

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