Introduction to Ice Age 1: Guns of KS-1

Guns of KS-1

In World War I, aircraft were initially intended for aerial reconnaissance, however some pilots began to carry rifles in case they spotted enemy planes. Soon, planes were fitted with machine guns with a variety of mountings; initially the only guns were carried in the rear cockpit supplying defensive fire (this was employed by two-seat aircraft all through the war). Seeing a need for offensive fire, forward-firing weapons were devised. The Airco DH.2 pusher plane had its gun in the front while the engine was in the back, some experimented with mountings on the (side) wing or on the biplane's upper wing (above the cockpit), until by 1916 most fighter aircraft mounted their guns in the forward fuselage using a synchronization gear so that the bullets did not strike the propeller.

In World War II, fighter aircraft carried machine guns and cannons mounted in the wings, engine cowlings, nose, or between the banks of the engine, firing through the propeller spinner. Night fighters sometimes utilized guns firing upwards as well. Bombers typically carried from one to 14 flexible machine guns and/or autocannon as defensive armament, while certain types added fixed offensive guns as well.

While missiles have been the primary armament since the early 1960s, the Vietnam War showed that guns still had a role to play and most fighters built since then are fitted with cannons (typically between 20 and 30mm in caliber) as an adjunct to missiles. Modern European fighter aircraft are usually equipped with the revolver cannon, whereas the United States and to some extent Russia generally favor the Gatling gun. The Gatling gun quickly became the weapon of choice for most air forces.

ADEN cannon (UK)

20 mm Becker (Germany)

Berezin B-20 (USSR)

Berezin BS (USSR)

Berezin UB (USSR)

Bordkanone BK 3,7 cannon (37mm, a.k.a. 3,7cm) (Germany)

Bordkanone BK 5 cannon (50mm, a.k.a. 5cm) (Germany)

Bordkanone BK 7,5 cannon (75mm a.k.a. 7,5cm) (Germany)

Breda-SAFAT machine gun (Italy)

Browning Model 1919 machine gun (United States)

Colt Mk 12 cannon (United States)

COW 37 mm gun (UK)

DEFA cannon (France)

GAU-7 cannon (United States)

GAU-8 Avenger (United States)

GAU-12 Equalizer (United States)

GIAT 30 (France)

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23L (Russia)

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-23 (Russia)

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-30 (Russia)

Gryazev-Shipunov/Izhmash GSh-30-1 (Russia)

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-2 (Russia)

Hispano 20 mm cannon (Switzerland)

Ho-1/Ho-3 cannon (20mm) (Japanese Army)

Ho-5 cannon (20mm)(Japanese army)

Ho-103 machine gun (12.7mm) (Japanese army)

Ho-155 cannon (30mm), (Japanese army)

Ho-203 cannon (37mm) (Japanese army)

Ho-204 cannon (37mm) (Japanese army)

Ho-301 cannon (caseless 40mm) (Japanese army)

Ho-401 cannon (57mm) (Japanese army)

Ho-402 cannon (57mm) Japanese army)

Lewis gun (USA/UK)

M2 Browning machine gun (United States)

M4 cannon (United States)

M39 cannon (United States)

M61 Vulcan (United States)

M134 Minigun (United States)

M197 Gatling gun (United States)

MAC 1934 (France)

Mauser BK-27 (Germany)

Parabellum MG14 (Germany)

MG 15 machine gun (Germany)

MG 17 machine gun (Germany)

MG 131 machine gun (Germany)

MG 151 cannon (Germany)

MG FF cannon (Germany)

MK 103 cannon (Germany)

MK 108 cannon (Germany)

Nudelman-Suranov NS-23 (Russia)

Schwarzlose MG M.07/12 (Austria-Hungary)

Shipunov 2A42 (Russia)

ShKAS machine gun (Russia)

ShVAK cannon (Russia)

Maschinengewehr 08 (Germany)

Spandau machine gun (Germany)

Semi Automatique Moteur Canon d'aviation (37mm) (France)

75 mm gun (US) (T13E1 / M5) (United States)

Type 1 machine gun (7.92mm)(Japanese navy)

Type 2 cannon (30mm) (Japanese navy)

Type 2 machine gun (13mm) (Japanese navy)

Type 3 machine gun (13.2mm) (Japanese navy)

Type 5 cannon (30mm) (Japanese navy)

Type 88 cannon (75mm) (Japanese army)

Type 89 machine gun (7.7mm) (Japanese army)

Type 92 machine gun (7.7mm) (Japanese navy)

Type 97 machine gun (7.7mm) (Japanese navy)

Type 98 machine gun (7.92mm) (Japanese army)

Type 99 cannon (20mm) (Japanese navy)

1.59 inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II ("Vickers-Crayford rocket gun") (UK)

Vickers machine gun (UK)

Vickers K machine gun (UK)

Vickers S (UK)

Volkov-Yartsev VYa-23 (USSR)

Karabin maszynowy obserwatora wz.37 (PL)


History of ice age 1

Sdermanland is one of the ancient Swedish provinces. People probably settled there in the early Stone Age, from which time the earliest remains date. There are a total of 96,000 known ancient remains such as grave fields, coins, knives, etc. There are prominent finds especially from the Neolithic, but also a substantial amount from the Nordic Bronze Age. From the early Iron Age, before 1 AD, the finds are however more sparse. Then from the 5th and 6th centuries AD, the finds are again plenty, now of gold. In 1774, a treasure of 12kg (26lb) of gold from that time was found on a farm in Tureholm.

From the Viking Age 300 runestones remain, second only to Uppland in quantity. The oldest, which is dated from the late 6th century, is the Skng Runestone.

The earliest recorded history is generally of the legendary kind. Before the 7th century it is deemed to have been governed by petty kingdoms. This period ended when Ingjald the Ill-Ruler allegedly had a number of local rulers arsoned around 640.

The oldest city with the historical city status in Sdermanland was Sdertlje, a privilege granted around 1000. Nykping received the privilege in 1187. In the 13th century, Stockholm was granted the privilege; in the 14th century followed by Strngns, Torshlla and Trosa.

Around 1100, Strngns became the episcopal seat with a bishop and cathedral. It was for a long time the only diocese of the province. In 1942 the Diocese of Stockholm was established, claiming parts of the Strngns territory.

The first affirmative records date from the 13th century. King Magnus Laduls was given the province in 1266, and settled himself on the manor at Nykping. Nykping became one of the most important cities in Sweden. In 1317, Nykping become the location of the infamous Nykping Banquet where King Birger had both his brothers murdered to take possession of the crown and avenge earlier wrong-deeds.

In 1523 the King Gustav Vasa, referred to as the Sweden's Father of the Nation, was crowned in Strngns. The date, 6June, eventually is commemorated as the national holiday. Charles IX, a son of Gustav Vasa, favoured the province, fortifying castles and establishing early industries.

The largest of very many paintings made by David von Krafft is the Hildebrand family portrait from 1713 (at Nyns Manor, in Sdermanland), depicting the merchant and industrialist Henrik Jacob Hildebrand and his wife Anna Sofia Amya on the occasion of their 50th anniversary surrounded by their over twenty children and grandchildren, as well as some deceased relatives in paintings on the wall in the background.

Dukes and Duchesses of SdermanlandPrince Magnus (as of 1252; king from 1275)

Prince Eric (13021310 also Dalsland, North Halland, Vrmland and West Gothland)

Prince Carl (as of 1560; king from 1604 also Nrke and Vrmland)

Princess Maria, his first wife (15791589 also Nrke and Vrmland)

Princess Christina, his second wife and widow (as of 1592; queen from 1604 also Nrke and Vrmland)

Crown Prince Gustav Adolph (16041607 also Vstmanland)

Prince Carl Philip (16071618 also Nrke and Vrmland)

Prince Carl (as of 1772; king from 1809)

Princess Charlotte, his wife and widow (as of 1774; queen from 1809)

Crown Prince Oscar (as of 1811; king from 1844)

Crown Princess Josephine, his wife and widow (as of 1823; queen from 1844)

Prince Carl Oscar (18521854)

Prince Wilhelm (18841965)

Princess Maria, his wife (1909 until divorce 1914)

Prince Alexander (2016present)


Slavic and Iranian of KS-1

According to Matasovi (2008), "solving the problem of Iranian loanwords in Slavic, their distribution and relative chronology, is one of the most important tasks of modern Slavic studies". Slavs in the era of the Proto-Slavic language came into contact with various Iranian tribes, namely Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alans, which were present in vast regions of eastern and southeastern Europe in the first centuries CE. The names of two large rivers in the centre of Slavic expansion, Dnieper and Dniester, are of Iranian origin, and Iranian toponyms are found as far west as modern day Romania.

For a long time there have been investigators who believe that the number of loanwords from Iranian languages in Proto-Slavic is substantial. For example, Gob (1992) maintains that all Slavic words with unexplained initial *x- are in fact Iranianisms. However, there have been other Slavists who have claimed that confirmed Iranianisms in Slavic are in fact surprisingly few, and Matasovi has raised broad objections to the body of past Iranianist research. Meillet and Vaillant cite the Slavic word *taparu, axe (Russ. topr, Pol. topr, Sr-Cr. tpor), which came from Iranian *tapara- (cf. Persian tabar). (Gob, noting the etymological connection with Slavic *tep, I hit, holds that this word is in fact a loan from Slavic into Iranian.) Meillet and Vaillant explain the alleged lack of Iranianisms in Slavic with the argument: "the civilization of warrior and partially nomadic tribes, like Scythian and Sarmatian, could have exerted only a cursory influence on the patriarchal civilization of Slavs."

Matasovi criticizes Gob's approach as "methodologically unacceptable", emphasizing that initial *x- in Slavic has several sources, some of which have been ascertained (like PIE *#ks-), and others which have not. Matasovi recommends that instances of initial *x- in Slavic should first be explained by recourse to regular Slavic sound laws, and that Iranian should be proposed as a source if and only if the etymon has been attested in Iranian and if and only if there is additional phonetic evidence to support the proposal.

Gob and Matasovi concur that Reczek (1985) and Berntejn (196174) compiled excessively large numbers of alleged Iranianisms by neglecting to thoroughly check the candidates against accepted sound changes in the various major descendants of Proto-Indo-European.

Two likely Iranian loanwords in Common Slavic are

PSl. *gnj, cloak, mantle (Russ. gnja, Pol. gunia, Sr-Cr. gnj) Common Slavic *bog) and Indo-Iranian (Old Persian baga, Sanskrit bhga). However, they did not argue that the Proto-Slavic root itself was a borrowing, despite its similarity to the Old Persian and Sanskrit roots.

One of the Iranian-Slavic lexical isoglosses is a lone adposition: Old Persian rdiy, OCS radi.

Matasovi notes typological coincidences between Slavic and Ossetian, an Iranian language whose ancestor was Alanic. In both modern Ossetian and the Slavic group, verbs are conjugated for perfective and imperfective aspects; prefixation is a prominent means of deriving perfective verbs from imperfective verbs; there are certain syntactic behaviors of pronominal clitics in common; both sporadically mark direct objects with the genitive. It remains to be determined, however, whether those correspondences are a result of prehistoric contacts between Slavic and Alanic tribes, or just a case of accidental parallel development.

There is a few Proto-Slavic terms in the opinion of some linguist to be of Iranian origin but hold no factual truth. These terms assumed Iranian origin has been rejected by the scientific community and refuted with factual study of etymology.

vina Russ. , ravn Russ. /, ir/*irok Russ.

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