In Order to Light an LED with a 12V Supply, What Resistor Value Is Needed?

Normally, you want to minimize waste, so you connect as many LED in series as possible to consume the voltage provided, then you use a resistor to limit the current to the correct value.White LEDs are universally using 3.0 volts. You can't use 4 LEDs because there is no room for any current limitation, so we take one less ; 3 LEDs.The most popular high power white LED are 1 watt, 100 lumens, 3.

0 volt, 0.

333 Amps. The 3 LEDs in series need 9 volts and the resistor need to absorb the rest : 12 v - 9v : 3 volts.Using ohm law: r v / i 3 volt / 0.333 9 ohmLets use 10 ohm to make sure we don't damage the LED. The power dissipated by the resistor is: 3 volt * 0.

333 a 1 wattThis is logical since this resistor act like if we had 4 LED of 1 watt each. However, this resistor is important for protection while we exploit the full brightness available.The problem is if we connected 4 LEDs in series and no resistors, the LEDs would make almost no light at 11.

9 volt but they would get destroyed at 12.1 volts. If you intend to use them in a car, the voltage is 14.4 volts when the motor run and often 11.5 volt or less when the battery is weak.Click upvote if you finally understood why we use resistors, downvote if i don't make sense. Close now if you don't give a .

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How is Zia Ul Haq viewed in Pakistan?

What most people who support Zia ul Haq dont seem to understand is, that had he been the president during the post 9/11 era he would have supported enlightened moderation and a more secular mindset. Just like Musharraf.The man himself was not a mullah, he didnt keep a beard, and quite frankly in his personal life was anything but devout. He was, quite simply a man who went along with the requirements of the times. And, with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the US and the world wanted a Pakistan that is right wing, highly islamicised and extremised,(however much they may deny it now) so that the country could fight off the atheist communists in Afghanistan.People say the economy and military did well in his era, well that was almost entirely due to the dollars and riyals that flowed in to Pakistan to aid the mujahideen during that era.Under the circumstances prevalent at that time, a practical realist with zero enthusiasm for true islam or religion may well have gone along with many of the steps that he had taken, since they led to greater cash inflows and foreign aid. All that wasnt done in some selfless service to deen, it was very much a calculated and deliberate move to maximise gain. Of course, he and his cronies didnt have the foresight(nor did the USA) to realise the long term consequences of their actions

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If the Russian government was such a bad one, why are Russians not complaining?

The thing with Russia is that whie Putin did install such a power mechanism that he is close to being a dictator while still maintaining democratic structures, many don't care about living in a (quasi-)dictatorship as long as they have money. And under Putin Russian economy grew more than tenfold.Only what those 70-80% of Russians who vote for Putin (it were 50% at one point but got more after the Ukrainian events) don't want to notice: that tenfold growth is not really Putin's achievement.

First, the said growth began already under Yeltsin - practically immediately after the Russian economy crashed in 1998. After the crash, it started rapidly improving.Second, a lot of it is due to high oil prices during most of his reign. Somewhere around 75% of Russian budget is oil money. Interestingly, when Putin came to power, it were 40%, and one of his pre-election promises was to reduce this number. Instead, he nearly doubled it, making Russia an "oil junkie". Russia was affected by the crisis of 2008 a lot stronger than many other nations. Also in recent years Russia is in recession again - again because oil got cheaper. But here foreign sanctions come handy, and Putin blames the recession on those sanctions. I actually sometimes wonder if the entire Ukrainian post-Maidan crisis/war got Russian support just for this reason - to divert from oncoming economic struggle. After all, Putin's rating was quite shaky in 2011-2013. At least, shaky by his measures - around 50%.

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Does Newton's third law apply to magnets?

Newton's 3rd Law isn't absolute, but it still works well for a magnet near an iron block. Inside the iron block are iron atoms with unpaired electrons that make each iron atom a tiny magnet. The iron atoms are in magnetic domains that each have many atoms magnetically oriented in the same direction. These domains are still small, and each has net magnetization. In an unmagnitized block of iron the domains are randomly oriented, and the block as a whole has zero or nearly zero net magnetization.In the presence of an external magnetic field some of the magnetic domains will grow and others will shrink. There is also some degree of rotation of the domains (Magnetic materials). These processes give the block net magnetization. That is, it temporarily becomes a magnet, as long as the external magnetic field is present. In some cases the domains will completely revert to their original situations as soon as the external field is removed. In other cases they only partly shift back, and the iron becomes a weak magnet.The point is that a magnet attracts an originally unmagnetized block of iron by turning it into a magnet. Otherwise the effect would be little different from trying to use a magnet to attract a block of aluminum. In the absence of very sensitive instruments, you wouldn't find any effect.A magnet will not attract anything that can't be magnetized. If it attracts something by magnetically polarizing it, the attracted object will also and equally attract the magnet

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Why were there no calls to impeach Obama and Biden for threatening to withhold aid to Ukraine?

Because, at the time, Viktor Shokin was taking bribes to not investigate corruption. Everyone knew it, and the entire world outside of Russia and the corrupt businessmen wanted him replaced. The EU, the IMF, all of the G-7 nations, both parties in both houses of Congress, and most of the Ukrainian people wanted Shokin out of office.

Once he was removed, his replacement, Yuriy Lutsenko, reopened the investigation of Bursima and its owner, Mykola Zlochevsky. That investigation was finally closed, and Lutsenko reported that there was no evidence of wrongdoing by either of the Bidens.This is all a matter of public record. There are several Wikipedia articles about the subject, so it's easy to check for yourself. You can start with this article:Trump-Ukraine scandal - WikipediaAnd follow the links from there.To boil it down to the tl/dr version, in 2014, both parties in Congress said "don't give money to Ukraine until they clean up corruption." So the Obama administration didn't give money until the corruption was cleaned up.

By contrast, in 2019, both parties in Congress said "Corruption in Ukraine is cleaned up, so give them this money." But the Trump administration withheld the money (without telling Congress) until he could extract a promise of a personal favor from the president of Ukraine.That's the big difference. Hope that helps

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How many battleships were lost during WWII?

37 were sunk in combat, scuttled or lost at sea through other incidents, in addition 2 battle Cruisers were lostBattleships lostHMS Royal Oak Royal Navy

Sunk

14-Oct-39Bretagne Marine Nationale

Sunk

03-Jul-40Kilkis Hellenic Navy

Sunk

23-Apr-41Lemnos Hellenic Navy

Sunk

23-Apr-41Bismarck German Navy

Sunk

27-May-41Petropavlovsk Soviet Navy

Sunk

23-Sep-41HMS Barham Royal Navy

Sunk

25-Nov-41USS Arizona United States Navy

Sunk

07-Dec-41USS Utah United States Navy

Sunk

07-Dec-41HMS Prince of Wales Royal Navy

Sunk

10-Dec-41Asahi Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

25-May-42Hiei Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

14-Nov-42Kirishima Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

15-Nov-42Dunkerque Marine Nationale

Sunk

27-Nov-42Provence Marine Nationale

Sunk

27-Nov-42Mutsu Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

08-Jun-43Roma Regia Marina

Sunk

09-Sep-43Scharnhorst German Navy

Sunk

26-Dec-43HMS Centurion Royal Navy

Sunk

09-Jun-44Courbet Marine Nationale

Sunk

09-Jun-44Strasbourg Marine Nationale

Sunk

18-Aug-44Jean Bart Marine Nationale

Sunk

28-Aug-44Musashi Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

24-Oct-44Fus Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

25-Oct-44Yamashiro Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

25-Oct-44Tirpitz German Navy

Sunk

12-Nov-44Kong Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

21-Nov-44Conte di Cavour Regia Marina

Sunk

23-Feb-45SMS Schleswig-Holstein German Navy

Sunk

21-Mar-45SMS Zhringen German Navy

Sunk

26-Mar-45Gneisenau German Navy

Sunk

27-Mar-45Yamato Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

07-Apr-45SMS Schlesien German Navy

Sunk

03-May-45Haruna Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

24-Jul-45Ise Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

28-Jul-45Settsu Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

29-Jul-45Hyga Imperial Japanese Navy

Sunk

01-Aug-45Battlecruisers lostHMS Hood

Royal Navy

Sunk

24-May-41HMS Repulse

Royal Navy

Sunk

10-Dec-41

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What if Italy won the Second World War?

Italy did win WWII.Starting from September 1943 the official Italian government broke its alliance with Nazi Germany and joined the Allied's side. Mussolini, who had been thrown out of the government and arrested, was freed by a Nazi task force led by Otto Skorzeny and reinstated at the head of Italian Social Republic, a puppet state actually controlled by the Nazis.The majority of the Italian armed forces abroad refused to join its armies and got jailed in Nazi lagers as IMI (Italian Military Internees), in conditions that weren't much different from those suffered by the Jews (one in ten died, the rest returned home pitifully thin and weakened: my grandfather's brother was a tall man but weighted only slightly above 40 kilos, his mother did not recognize him). These IMI had an easy way out of the lagers: enlist in the new Mussolinis army. Despite the hard work, the starvation, the violence they were subject to, very few accepted.Finally, in the occupied territory of northern Italy, a strong Resistance movement, fuelled by the scores of youth who refused to serve in Mussolini's armies, fought against the Nazis.

At the end of the war, Italy won, although as a non-official member of the Alliance it never had a place in the peace talks. It liberated itself from both the Fascists and the Nazi occupation

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What are the odds Donald Trump did something improper with Jeffrey Epstein?

In my opinion, 99.99%.There are reports that Donald Trump kicked Jeffrey Epstein out of Mar-A-Lago for messing around with a 14 year old child. And kicked him out of Mar-A-Lago, Why didn't he contact law enforcement?If you take the time to read all these documents not only will they make you sick to your stomach, but this suit was dropped at the same time that Stormy Daniels was paid off by him and Michael Cohen, and whoever else was involved that got immunity to talk during the Mueller investigation. Example, David Pecker, Allen Weisselberg.

All Documents in the Doe v. Trump Lawsuits - The Memory Hole 2Having worked in the medical field and seen some pretty horrible things, the first thing we always did when we suspected child molestation, was call law enforcement immediately.My question is, WHO WAS MARIA!!!!Seem to be the popular threat used by both trumplestiltskin and Jeffrey Epstein. In order to get what they wanted.Only time will tell as long as William, Barr the president from harm, doesn't close this up as a nothing matter.

There are many other victims out there that deserve some sort of justice for the horrendous things that were done to them when they were children.I'll say again and again, this is not a political issue it's a moral issue. That means anyone and I mean anyone involved should be held accountable.

Thanks for the a2a.

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