How to Dramatically Demonstrate a Combustion Reaction (Whoosh Bottle Experiment)

The demonstration is performed with a dry five-gallon (20-Litre)water jug. A volume of 5.0 mL of methanol is added to the jug. The jug is capped and shaken for 30 seconds. After removing the top, excess ethanol is shaken from the jug, and placed in a stoppered container away from the demonstration table. Since these "Whoosh Bottle" demonstrations have caused a variety of accidents, it is imperative to protect against shattering when the ignition of the vapor in the jug occurs. After removing the top and drying the opening of the jug, place the jug on its side under the protection of a small three-sided safety shield1 that is lying on its side on the bench top. This allows for protection of both the demonstrator and audience when ignition occurs.

The demonstration is used to discuss the combustion process. I normally first ignite a small volume of ethanol on a watch glass (behind a safety shield) to describe the slow burning process of the vapors. This provides a sharp contrast to the ignition of a small volume of methanol vaporized in the jug. A variety of combustion/detonation processes may then be discussed.

Note 1. The standard three-sided safety shield, which is recommended for use in performing any hazardous demonstrations

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Students of Eco-schools Celebrate Earth Day with Contests ...
millburn-eco-school-earth-day.jpgNicole Villalba, left, and Chelsea Chen, 8th graders at Millburn Middle School, are members of the Peers Educating about Environmental Problems, or PEEP club. They gave a presentation on 'pre-cycling' during an Earth Week celebration.(John Munson/The Star-Ledger)MILLBURN - For young environmentalists, this week's Earth Day celebration is like Christmas, Halloween and the Fourth of July rolled into one. So it's no surprise students across New Jersey have been celebrating with a week of festivities, from planting gardens to school-wide contests - and lots of lessons in between.At Millburn's Middle School, members of the environmental club PEEPs (for Peers Educating about Environmental Problems) have been extending today's holiday by presenting lunchtime demonstrations for a week through Thursday to show their classmates how to live more ecologically.Last week's lesson was on pre-cycling. Eighth-graders Chelsea Chen and Nicole Villalba used bottled water to encourage their friends to think about a product's packaging - and the garbage it will generate - before they buy or consume it.The students placed a five-gallon jug of water next to a case of 24 bottles, and asked students which one is better for the planet."We want to think about the amount of packaging something uses," Nicole said, pointing to the water jug. "This is a much better choice. It's less packaging and easy to use."The series of Earth Week presentations is part of the Millburn school's effort to reach bronze level status in the National Wildlife Federation's Eco-Schools program, teacher Stephen Chernoski said. An international effort to engage young people in environmental causes, Eco-School's USA encourages students and teachers to integrate ecological concepts in school curriculum and student behavior."In this day and age, if we're not bringing the lens of sustainability to the curriculum, we're at risk for educating for un-sustainability," said Jennifer Dowd, coordinator of Eco-Schools USA for New Jersey Audubon. "This gets kids to look at their school buildings, their grounds and use scientific processes for change."The Eco-Schools program is enjoying a growth spurt in the Garden State. There are 115 schools participating this year, compared to about 40 a year ago.Dowd says the hands-on nature of the program, and its flexibility for grade level and school size, make it popular. "Eco-Schools is pedagogically sound and it gets kids outside for hands-on learning," she said. "They are taking curricula and making it real for kids."Chernoski started the club this year and he said the benefits are already clear. "Convenience still trumps the message, but our recycling has gotten better," he said before the presentation. "If one-third of the (sixth-graders at this session) get the message, that would be phenomenal."Club members do the school's recycling every Wednesday, and they are collecting data on which grades and classroom are good at recycling, and which do better at turning off lights to conserve electricity. Next week they plan to share their data with the school.Many schools are using Earth Day to spotlight their efforts, Dowd said.Unity Charter School in Morristown will host a school-wide contest that pits different classes against each other to win the title of "Planet Protector." Jersey City's P.S. 25 will take students outside to clean up the grounds and work in the garden.Sustainability is at the core of school culture at Philip's Academy Charter School in Newark, another Eco-School. Students recycle, compost and plant a rooftop garden. They operate a controlled-environment system that allows vegetables to grow in the cafeteria, which are then harvested and served in the salad bar, and they learn about solar energy from the solar panels on the roof.Earth Day will be celebrated on Friday, at the end of a week of festivities. The theme is "Ways to green our school.""Some of it's planting, some is cleanup around the school; each grade is doing something," said Frank Mentesana, director of the school's eco-spaces program.That's the beauty of the Eco-Schools program, Dowd said. It fits to each school's capacity and experience, from advanced programs like Philip's Academy to newbies like Millburn."It's really fun to do this. I've always had a passion about nature," Nicole said."We're trying to make it fun," Chelsea added. "So (students) get the point but don't think it's boring."
The Mistakes We Make When Moving
Moving to a new home can be intensely stressful and throw your life into chaos. But the process is old hat to a sometimes invisible group of people who have seen it all: the movers."When you're moving people, they're not always at their best," said Finn Murphy, author of "The Long Haul: A Trucker's Tales of Life on the Road," who also does long distance, high-end moves for Joyce Van Lines. "Their whole sense of security is getting unraveled. People get really hung up on attachments to things that they've imbued from their own mind and their own experience that doesn't have any objective value whatsoever." But that doesn't mean that people pack those items well, or carefully. Here are a few common mistakes that movers have witnessed when people pack themselves, as well as some suggestions on how to avoid breaking your stuff (and your heart).Mistake No. 1: RushingJamie Viggiano, owner of the Philadelphia-based J. Viggiano & Co. Furniture Delivery, has worked in moving for 30 years and said the biggest mistake that people make is not being ready when the movers show up."Everybody waits until the last minute, and then they just throw stuff in a box and it's not packed properly," he said. "I can't tell you how many times I've walked into a house and there's just stuff all over desks."He said that almost every home-improvement store and storage facility sells packing materials, including item-specific ones like dish sleeves and bags for framed pictures. Between those materials being widely available and online videos showing how to efficiently and carefully pack boxes, you can drastically reduce the chances of breaking anything in the move by giving yourself enough time to pack things the right way. Mistake No. 2: Leaving the Breakables BreakableMr. Murphy said dishes are almost always packed improperly. "Dishes need to be packed on their ends, not flat," he said. "I've seen some people just taking dishes and laying them flat and putting stemware on top. It's guaranteed to break." Michael McAlhany, founder and president of UNITS Moving and Portable Storage, Inc., said he has seen people pack coffee machines with the coffee pot still in the machine. Another common breakable: grandfather clocks. "We ask them to get a local clock company to come out and secure that swinging arm," Mr. McAlhany said. "When you're riding down the highway and slam on the brakes, if that arm swings it will break the clock." Mirrors can go between mattresses, he said. If there aren't mattresses available, mirrors should be cocooned in bubble-wrap or, at the very least, in newspaper.Mistake No. 3: Not Supporting Top-Heavy ItemsMr. McAlhany said that when people move themselves, the items that are often most at risk are the ones with a lot of weight on top of narrow legs, like pianos and pinball machines. "You have so much weight on the top, and it's fine when it's stagnant in a game room or in your home - it's not swaying back and forth like at brakes or stoplights," he said. "All that pressure is going on the piano legs and pinball machine legs. A leg gives and the thing comes crashing down." To keep these items safe, he recommended stacking packed boxes between the legs and up to the underside of the object so that the boxes become supports for the heavy top. Mr. McAlhany said he has seen the same problem with a strangely popular home decoration: the leg lamp from "A Christmas Story." "We see these all the time," he said. People will "put them straight in just like it's on your table next to your chair in the living room, and then it falls over or something falls on it because it's not strapped in." Mistake No. 4: Not Divorcing Your StuffMovers say they sometimes get caught between a couple that is splitting up, and splitting up their stuff. "You go around seeing white Post-it notes and red Post-it notes, and then oftentimes I'm standing there while the people are arguing with red and white Post-it notes," Mr. Murphy said. Try to determine ownership in advance, and remember that the movers aren't taking sides."People think that us moving the furniture kind of gives them the OK to include us as an instrument in that whole transaction and we are just some kind of pawn in the game," said Lior Rachmany, founder and chief executive of New York-based Dumbo Moving Storage. The movers should defer to whoever's name is on the moving contract, just as a package would go to the person whose name is on it. Mr. Rachmany said he has had police called on him and his crew when one partner believed the other partner was trying to steal their belongings. Mistake No. 5: About That Fish TankThe most bizarre thing Mr. McAlhany has encountered is clients who pack their fish tank complete with the water and fish still inside. He has seen it more than once. To state the obvious, empty the water out of the fish tank before moving it. But don't just dump the water out: "We recommend putting that water in a five-gallon water jug," he said, and then adding the fish and moving it that way.Ultimately, Mr. McAlhany said, "It's hard to dummy-proof anything."For weekly email updates on residential real estate news, sign up here.
Minimum Pipe Length for Split Air Conditioning Unit?
mildew probable. Or would be a mechanical subject. If it smells in any respect like some thing burning, close it off. Or it might desire to be pulling undesirable smells from an exterior source. examine exterior the unit to work out in case you will scent the subject.1. Is it illegal to not have an air conditioning unit in a gymnasium?I grew up in western Pennsylvania, and my house was never air conditioned, and my high school gym was not air conditioned. and PA summers and falls were hot when I was practicing for volleyball!! My whole school did not have A/C, in fact. It's a luxury, not a right. That's what fans and water are for.2. Air conditioning condenser fan won't turn on...?Ac Condenser Fan Motor3. If i use the air conditioning in my car will it use some of the gas or will it use the battery power?The ac unit is driven by belts and compressors. There is some toll taking on fuel economy because your engine works a little harder to turn the compressor. Its really boils down to what comfort level you can live with. Since your altenator recharges the electrical system there is really no draw on the battery.... d4. Air conditioning Outside Unit wires cut?You will have to find a small fuse inside of the air handler ....if it does not have one than your looking at replacing the transformer, but just about every unit has a small fuse in it...and thats what you will have to change5. Trouble With my cars air conditioning?Brownie66, on some vehicles it goes from the top of the expansion valve into, rather onto, the high side hose. Other models simply do not have it6. Air conditioning: Like it or hate it?love it. I live in Hong Kong, which is EXTREMELY HOT and HUMID. I can not stand the heat cuz i got eczema. Whenever i got sweat, it makes my eczema worse, so i am not a fan of hot weather7. How do you fix poor home air conditioning circulation?Close the vent in the basement to have more air pushed to the other parts of the home8. How much should air conditioning repair cost?You got off very cheap. As far as a 400% mark up on a capacitor, you did not pay for the capacitor, you paid for the techs knowledge and the fact that he was able to diagnose the problem. You paid for the fuel and wear on his van, the workmans comp, his medical insurance, his tools, his on going education, his 401-K, liability insurance, his uniforms and about 22 other items I will not bore you with. Think about it this way, if I am sick, you are the man. When your home comfort system fails, the HVAC tech is the man. Like yourself, he deserves to make a solid living for the knowledge he has.9. Air Conditioning Question..If you open doors and windows & keep 3 airconditioners on, what happens?Of course it will increase the cost. That chilled air is going outside after you paid for it. The A/C already mixes fresh air into the air it chills so it does not need new hot and muggy air from those windows. You will save money if you have an electrician come in and add an on-off switch at easy-to-reach height that the staff could use to shut off the A/Cs if they want to open the windows.10. What to look for when buying a new furnace/air conditioning unit?First off, shop around because you will find a big price difference. The things you need to know is how much will it cost to run. What is the proper size for your home? This is critical. Do not let somebody sell you an undersized one because the price sounds good. Make sure the installer shows you how to do basic maintenance such as the proper way to clean the evaporator and condenser coils. If you have central heating you will have the ducts already. If not it will be quite abit costlier. Get many estimates and compare them on price, Btu estimates (Do not volunteer this to an estimater), you will be able to weed out some contractors by this. You can search air conditioners online to see the different fomulas used to determine Btu's. If the price they give sounds overwhelming, they have portable a/c units you can move from room to room, but you need to exhaust the heat to the outside. Sound is the other thing you need to consider
How Do You Clean a Bathing Suit in the Washer?
Use a gentle chlorine-removing product like Woolite or Dreft and wash the suit by hand or in the machine, then let it AIR DRY. Do not put a bathing suit in the dryer--the spandex will stretch out of shape and it will pucker and look bad1. What other ways to eat felafel?Try it baked! Baked falafel is still crunchy on the outside and delicious on the inside! Prep Time: 5 minutes Cook Time: 20 minutes Total Time: 25 minutes Ingredients: 1 15-19 oz can chickpeas, drained 1 small onion, chopped 2 cloves of garlic, chopped 1 tablespoons of fresh parsley, chopped 2 tablespoons all purpose flour 1 teaspoon coriander 1 teaspoon cumin 1/2 teaspoon baking powder salt and pepper 2 tablespoons olive oil Preparation: Drizzle olive oil evenly in shallow baking dish. Preheat oven to 350. While oven is preheating, mash chickpeas with mortar and pestle or in food processor. Add onions and garlic and blend. Add remaining ingredients to make a thick paste-like consistency. Shape into ping pong size balls and place in preheated baking dish. Bake for 15-20 minutes, turning halfway through cooking. Serving Baked Falafel Baked falafel can be served the same way fried falafel would be served. Try it in a pita sandwich with tahini and veggies or on a platter with some hummus and a Middle Eastern salad.2. Getting and staying in shape for backpacking?Be nice if their was a "I am going backpacking better take a pill" to get in shape. Since there is not. I have hiked and backpacked for numerous years into remote areas. And one thing that works for me to keep the leg muscles tuned is riding a bike. All year round. And even the stationary ones work quite well. For the shoulder and arms. If you do not have access to a good exercise machine then pick up some hand held weights at one of the marts. Might also buy a set of the ankle weights. Get into a routine of working out with them, and the bike(s). And as the contributor mentioned. Wear your backpack on short walks, hikes. With the approximate weight you will be carrying on your trek. Just getting into a short workout routine you will find your trips much more pleasant3. Was subway tile used in actual subways?Yes that is where the name came from...The original subway tile was so called because of its white, and glossy glazed finish and very thin grout lines used as the wall surface standard in New York City, New York subway train stations in the early 20th century...it can still be seen in most stations today.Today "subway tile" is usually rectangular in shape...however it could also be squareNew York City Subway tiles - WikipediaWas subway tile used in actual subways?4. What happens to fake boobs when you get pregnant?Actually there tends to be less changes during pregnancy with implants present. As you experienced, the skin is stretched while the breast tissue volume is diminished. The result is sagging with loss of shape as well as volume. Because the augmented breasts maintain more of their volume (the implant volume does not decrease), women with implants are less likely to see such drastic changes. Edit: Depending on the procedure, many types of implants still allow you to nurse your baby.5. Are Peloton products worth the hype?It is an expensive exercise bicycle for at home--for some People that is what they wanna do--afterall you cant bingewatch Netflix outside, on a bicycle. Still.The Price to value Ratio of any indoor exercise bicycle is rather poor for most People that just want to stay in shape a bit, even in winter, Cycling outdoors aint impossible and a gym has bikes too---with Benefits n drawback obviously, i like going to a different Special place to exercise-- i see a gym Membership as better value, but if you are completely opposed to using the machines and weights there too, it might not be.For the high Price i also cant see it. You know what hurts after 3 Hours on a bicycle? Your butt. This Thing for this Money should transform into a recumbent on demand and also into a handycycle, if my legs hurt. Hell perhaps it should offer both at the same time.Also i wouldnt want that Thing taking up space. It is a luxury product, in my mind and if you got a really big house and can easily afford it, it might be worth it for you. If you have to think About it for a Moment then it is not. If you reallife bicycle cost under 1200bucks-it is not. See. This is clearly mocking it with some fair Points. Still he probably actually owns it. Look at this huge ing house.It Looks good in this house . He can totally afford it easily, without pain, without having to make any compromise.It was worth it alone for this Video
JET8 Weekly Update April 5th, 2018
This week the spotlight is on #SaveWater, a water awareness campaign for drought-stricken Cape Town; plus, ABC Heinz joins a growing list of brands available through the in-store JETpoints redemption system.JET8 supports Cape Town's water conservation push with #SaveWaterWith a relentless drought afflicting the Cape Town region showing no signs of easing for at least another year, JET8 this week rolled out the #SaveWater campaign in Cape Town, South Africa.The environmental impact campaign provides assets aimed at supporting the local community by raising awareness of the water shortage and offering water saving tips to help through the crisis.Airdrop token distribution to commenceIn the wake of the token generation event, the J8T Bounty Program Airdrop process will commence on the 6th April, 2018, as planned. The process will take up to two weeks to complete and occurs one month after the end of the token generation event.ABC Soy Sauce campaign offers Alfamart redemptionsThis week, ABC Heinz reinforced their confidence in JET8 by offering influencers JETpoint redemptions through Alfamart convenience stores across Indonesia.The announcement coincides with the second ABC Heinz social campaign on Fotoku, following their successful Chilli Sauce campaign. ABC Soy Sauce will build brand awareness and connect a community of busy moms with easy-to-prepare 15 minute recipes aimed at reducing cooking time, to maximise quality family time.Retailers cement support of JETpoint redemptionsRetail connectivity of the JET8 ecosystem has experienced rapid growth, to include a variety of convenience store chains throughout South Africa and South East Asia.JET8 in-store redemption technology has been available in Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia and South Africa through the Shop&Go chain for the past 2 years; in 7-11 stores for over a year; at Circle K locations for 6 months; and in the latter part of 2018 through Watsons, Alfamart, & Shoprite.Whilst over 10 brands have offered product redemptions at 7-11 in conjunction with their social campaigns, the number and variety of products available continues to expand, increasing the value of social currency JETpoints (earned through Content to Commerce technology pioneered by JET8).About usWant to know more about JET8?For all the details, read the Whitepaper and One PagerSubscribe to our subredditFollow us on TwitterJoin our TelegramFind us on GithubStay up to date with Weekly UpdatesFind out more with Dev Updates.·RELATED QUESTIONComparison of Water jet machining, Abrasive water jet machining, pure water jet machining?Water jet machining:water is coming out from the nozzle at a very high velocity which is obtained to be 200 to 400 m per second.Mechanism of material removal: Plastic deformation and fracturing and also called an Etching process.Material Removal Rate is directly proportional to the velocity of the water jet.No tool is used andOnly the nozzle is used.Medium: WaterWear Ratio: Infinity.Abrasive Water jet machining:It is advanced of Water Jet Machining Process which includes Abrasives as a medium.Water Abrasive ParticlesComes out the Nozzle.Applicable for Hard workpieces.The optimum percentage of abrasives - 40 to 60%.Applications: cutting of granite and marble of complex shapes.Detailed Explanation: Click on the link below.Water Jet and Abrasive Water Jet Machining: Adv, Limitations, Applications(GATE)
Things You May Want to Know About Tall Boots
An Introduction to tall bootsVladimir (affectionately known as Didi; a small boy calls him Mr. Albert) is one of the two main characters from Samuel Beckett's Waiting for GodotPersonality of tall bootsThe "optimist" (and, as Beckett put it, "the major character"1) of Godot, he represents the intellectual side of the two main characters (in contrast to his companion Estragon's earthy simplicity). One explanation of this intellectualism is that he was once a philosopher. This would explain his constant references and his attempts to engage Estragon in philosophical/religious debate.Vladimir is deeply concerned with appearances and goes to great lengths to make sure Estragon behaves so that his own dignity is preserved. He is something of a pack rat: he carries all the food the tramps have (though he never eats himself), and has other (to quote the play) "miscellaneous" junk in various pockets. Another important prop is his bowler hat. He claims that it "hurts" him, and is eventually driven to appropriate Lucky's. After long periods of thought (or whenever he is bored) he fiddles with it and plays with the brim. This hat focus (in terms of being head centred) may be interpreted as being representative of his higher status (see Estragon's boots) and his intellectual nature: because of this, he is usually taller than Estragon, but this is a convention of the theatre and is not written in the play.Despite this sometimes peevish and obsessive nature, Vladimir would seem to have a carnal side. He suffers from a venereal disease that causes him pain in his genitals and a need to urinate when he laughs. This might indicate a sexual past: he refers to a woman he knew who "had the clap"...although it is unclear whether this is the cause of his current condition or not. An explanation could be that he could represent the 'masculine' i.e. Vlad the Impaler to Estragon's 'feminine' i.e. Estrogen and that instead of waiting to die, it is their division that is preventing them from being born. His hat could represent a prophylactic.Vladimir has the only social conscience in the play (compare Estragon's misanthropic view of humanity: "People are bloody ignorant apes!"), and it seems that he cares a great deal for the plight of his fellow man: he expresses outrage at Pozzo's treatment of his slave, Lucky, and acts as something of a parental figure to the sometimes childish Estragon. This is not to say Vladimir does not suffer from his own emotional tics. He hates dreams, as they represent a cruel false hope, and he is unable to cope with Estragon's logic, the simplicity of which throws him off. He also does not suffer fools well: Pozzo's decadence and Estragon's crudeness give him much cause for indignation.Quotations of tall boots"Hand in hand from the top of the Eiffel Tower, among the first. We were respectable in those days. Now it's too late. They wouldn't even let us up.""Was I sleeping, while the others suffered? Am I sleeping now? Tomorrow, when I wake, or think I do, what shall I say of today? That with Estragon my friend, at this place, until the fall of night, I waited for Godot? That Pozzo passed, with his carrier, and that he spoke to us? Probably. But in all that what truth will there be? (Estragon, having struggled with his boots in vain, is dozing off again. Vladimir looks at him.) He'll know nothing. He'll tell me about the blows he received and I'll give him a carrot.""Let us not waste our time in idle discourse! Let us do something, while we have the chance! It is not every day that we are needed. Not indeed that we personally are needed. Others would meet the case equally well, if not better. To all mankind they were addressed, those cries for help still ringing in our ears! But at this place, at this moment of time, all mankind is us, whether we like it or not. Let us make the most of it, before it is too late! Let us represent worthily for once the foul brood to which a cruel fate consigned us! What do you say? It is true that when with folded arms we weigh the pros and cons we are no less a credit to our species. The tiger bounds to the help of his congeners without the least reflection, or else he slinks away into the depths of the thickets. But that is not the question. What are we doing here, that is the question. And we are blessed in this, that we happen to know the answer. Yes, in this immense confusion one thing alone is clear. We are waiting for Godot to come""We wait. We are bored. No, don't protest, we are bored to death, there's no denying it. Good. A diversion comes along and what do we do? We let it go to waste. Come, let's get to work! In an instant all will vanish and we'll be alone once more, in the midst of nothingness!"
Scientific Questions Regarding Tectonic Plates and the Energy Created by Its Activities.?
The primary concern of your question deals with the possible ever accumulation of energy buildup. The best way to answer that is to see how energy is stored and dissipated by tectonic movements. Unlimited, runaway, catastrophic energy buildup attributed to tectonic movement is difficult to take place for a number of reasons: you need tremendous generation of energy and more importantly the storage of such energy. Unlike the Toba catastrophe where such generation and storage of energy could take place in form of heat energy in a supervolcano, the movement of plates against each other precludes this scenarios. The slow moving plates usually result in the gradual release of mechnical energy such as two plates moving toward each other to form mountains over eons. The worst scenario of tectonic movement is the build up of elastic energy at a frictioned subduction zone. Take the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 for example, the two ocean plates move in opposite direction. However, at the subduction zone where two plates meet, the plate underneath the top plate "drags"the edge of the top plate due to friction. You can visualize this by extending both of your hands, right on top of left hand. As the fingers of your left hand submerges under the finger of your right hand, it "hooks" the fingernail of the right hand down and causing the right finger to curl down along with it. As the result, vast elastic energy slowly built up to the point when the top plate can no longer bent down and it just snaps suddenly up causing the great tsunami. There are two points to this incident: one is how such vast energy could be generated and stored, but more importantly is the limitation of how much energy could be stored this way, unlike heat energy build up in a magma chamber. As a side note to this story, it also answer your question that the energy would certainly be directed at a specific direction. In this case, the direction is vertical to the fault line; it all depends on how the plates are aligned. To sum it up, the concern is legitimate with tectonic movement accredited earthquake, not not enough to cause a worldwide catastrophic event due to the lack of mechanism to the proper "storage" of vast amount of energy, in contrast with thermal energy. Mechanical energy is gradually build up and released at the same time. Potential energy in the form of elastic property of landmass is not sufficient enough to cause a sudden catastrophic event, the worst case is a high scaled earthquake; which has taken place many times over human history. I am more concerned with the supervolcanoe at Yellowstone which is overdue for its next major eruption - that will truly be a hemisphere, if not global, event. ADDENDAM: The statement "Has not the most castrosphic earthquakes occurred in a predictable direction from the last location of tectonic activity indicating that that energy is only increasing in power?" is somewhat inaccurate. I am not an expert in seismology(my background is in physics and cs) so I can not comment the veracity of "predictable direction"; however, I can comment on the energy part. In order to make that claim, you need to justify HOW the energy is only increasing in power and WITH RESPECT to what. Energy is not free anywhere for you to grab, nor is energy unlimited for you to store in a finite element. Seismology, boils down to the barebone is the study of what happens when two plates collide(you can not get simpler than that.) Energy only comes in a limited number of forms, and in this aspect, the only form relevant are mechanical energy(in moving the plates), thermal energy( in result of friction between plates), and elastic potential engery( in the compression and stretching of plates); that is IT. You do not store energy in neither the mechanical nor the thermal part because they are converted immediately into motion and heat respectively. The ONLY possible way for you to store energy is in the compression and stretching of a piece of landmass. Take two pieces of Snickers Bars for example. When they are slammed head-on into each other, they get squeezed and compressed along the axis of collision as the strain inside builds up under external stress. There is no shape change, not until their shapes are deformed and bulge out vertical to the axis of collision when the yield stress is reached. However, such compression does not go on FOREVER, the bars will eventually break apart when the deformation exceeds the limit in which the ingredients the bar is made of can hold its shape. The same thing holds true for two pieces of landmass, each piece of landmass can only holds a FINITE amount of energy that is determined by its modulus of elasticity( or more appropriately modulus of bulk for 3D object). In the same manner as the Snickers bar, the energy is held IN the compression/folding of the landmass. In this stress-strain relationship, the landmass will eventually break after the initial deformation when it reaches the "ultimate stress point". If you need more elaboration on this, look up stress-strain curve in a book. In other word, it does not matter how big a landmass it is, everything has a ultimate stress point and will cause the object to buckle eventually. In the case of tectonic activity, the plate initially and gradually stores the energy in the folding at a fault line, once no more energy can be stored the folding part snaps and releases all the energy manifested as earthquake. So there is no such thing as ever-accumulating energy. After the snap, the landmass is NO LONGER the shape it was and the energy build up from folding will take in possibly a different or same place all over again from SCRATCH. Thus, to answer you question, the energy is only increasing in power FROM zero after each snap. And rememer, the energy stored is in the FOLDING at the fault line and that energy is ALWAYS limited subject to the dimension and material composition at that location does not matter if the landmass is the continent of Africa or not.1. Question about temperature and heat energy?Temperature and heat are two different things. It's easy to line them up by temps because they are given. Heat is different. A large mass holds more heat than a small mass at the same temp. Even though the ocean seems "cold", an ocean is huge and holds tremendous heat at any temperature. Between the two beakers, the larger mass (volume) holds more even though the temp is lower. As for the copper, all metals have low "specific heat capacities". In fact the same mass of water can hold about ten times the amount of heat as copper. Pretty obvious that it has the lowest heat energy in this problem. Here are the answers: - a beaker containing 100cm3 of water at 100 degrees C (a - 3) - a beaker contiaining 500cm3 of water at 90 degrees C (c - 2) - an ocean with an average temp of 5 degrees C (d - 1) - a 100cm3 lump of copper at 95 degrees C (b - 4)2. Is Industrial Waste Heat Energy Recovery the same as Cogeneration or CHP Combined Heat/Power?You should provide the general area where the speaker is needed. That might give you more responses. Try your state environmental agency web to see if they have anything. Sometimes states post success stories for such projects.3. temperature and heat?? energy transfer concept?The room will always get warmer with or without the door open. That's because the electric motor driving the compressor, pumps and relays is not 100% efficient, and some electrical energy will be converted to thermal energy which heats up the room regardless. So how do you cool the room with a refrigerator? I ask my chem students this every semester. Answer: Cut a hole in then wall just big enough to slide the refrigerator though sideways, so that the bottom half (with the motor and compressor) and the coils on the back are outside, and the freezer door is inside. Then open the freezer door and enjoy the cool air. By the way, you can make a heat pump and warm your house in the winter by reversing the refrigerator.
Explanation of Relationship Between Pressure and Poiling Point of Water [closed]
Explanation of relationship between pressure and poiling point of water [closed]The boiling point of any substance may be defined as 'the temperature at which the pressure of its own vapors become equal to the external pressure'. So for example in the case of water, at 100oC, the vapor pressure become equal to approx. 1 atm. Now if you increase the pressure further, you would need to heat the sample more such that the new pressure is balanced. Hence the boiling point is increased. The opposite happens for a decrease in the external pressure— — — — — —How can dynamic and static pressure be explained?You are very close. Your explanation of static pressure is correct, but not your dynamic pressure. Ram air pressure is what the pitot tube measures, in other words the total pressure experienced. It is your airspeed gauge which measures dynamic pressure by mechanically (in the case of a traditional pitot-static system) subtracting static pressure from ram air pressure. If I was explaining this to a layman I would say that ram air pressure is equivalent to sticking your hand out the window of a moving car, while static pressure is the pressure inside the car. That's a bit of an over-simplification as the pressure inside the car will be lower than outside due to the movement through the air, but it gets the point across— — — — — —Types of Pressure TransducerHi friends, In this article, I am discussing some important types of pressure transducer, pressure transducer working principle, advantages, disadvantages, and applications. So let us start. Pressure transducers are used to measure pressure. In a pressure transducer, firstly, the pressure is converted into a displacement by an elastic element like Bourdon tube, diaphragm, bellows, etc. And then this displacement is converted into a change in some electrical parameter. Being proportional to the applied pressure, this change in the electrical parameter is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. Some principle types of pressure transducer are as under: Strain gauges can be used for pressure measurement also. In this method, a strain gauge is attached to a pressure sensing diaphragm. When the pressure is applied to the diaphragm, the strain gauge is strained. This causes a change in resistance of the gauge which can be measured by a Wheatstone bridge. The detailed working of strain gauges has been discussed earlier. You can refer to that article for details. The advantages of this type of pressure transducers are: However, there are some disadvantages too. These are: • the need for fixed supply, In this type of pressure transducer, the pressure is converted into a displacement by a suitable primary sensing element such as a diaphragm, Bourdon tube, etc. The magnitude of output voltage depends upon the position of the wiper. In this way, pressure variations are get converted in the form of output voltage and can be measured by a suitable instrument. These are simple, cheap and can be made quite linear. But wear and tear due to frequent movement of the wiper, high noise level, and limited resolution are the main limitations of this method. In this type of pressure transducer, the pressure causes a change in the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor. The change in capacitance of the capacitor is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. The figure shows the different parts of a capacitor type pressure transducer. It is essentially a parallel plate capacitor having one fixed plate and the other free to move as the applied pressure changes. The movable plate is usually in the form of a diaphragm. When pressure is applied on the movable plate, the distance between the plates of the capacitor changes. This causes a corresponding change in the capacitance of the capacitor. The change in capacitance can be determined and is a measure of the magnitude of applied pressure. Generally, capacitor transducer forms, one of the arms of a bridge circuit. When no external pressure is applied, the ammeter connected in the bridge shows no deflection i.e. output voltage is zero. When pressure is applied, the bridge becomes unbalanced and causes some output voltage corresponding to the applied pressure. Thus output voltage of the bridge will be a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. Usually, the meter is calibrated to indicate the pressure directly. The main advantages of this type of pressure transducer are: However, they have limited range and severely affected by dirt and other contamination. They are mostly used in motor vehicles. The most commonly used inductive type transducer is the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The pressure can also be measured by an LDVT. It has been discussed earlier where it was used to measure displacement. You can refer to that article for details. To measure pressure, with an LVDT, the pressure is converted into displacement by a Bourdon tube. This displacement causes the movement of the magnetic core of the LVDT. Since the exactly similar secondary coils of the LVDT are connected in phase opposition, the magnitude of the output voltage will depend upon the position of the magnetic core. Initially, when no pressure is applied, the core will remain in the central position and the magnitude of the induced voltage in each secondary is the same due to their symmetrical position with respect to the core. On the application of pressure, the core shifts from its central position; causing the induced voltages in the two secondaries to differ. In this condition, the output voltage is equal to the difference in the two secondary voltages and will vary linearly with the displacement of the core. Thus output voltage of the LVDT is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. Advantages of this type of pressure transducers are: • the linear variation of output voltage with displacement up to 5 mm and, However, there are some disadvantages too: • performance is affected by stray magnetic fields and temperature variations, • a large displacement is required for reasonable amount of differential output. The piezoelectric transducer can be used to measure pressure. The working of a piezoelectric transducer has been discussed earlier. For details, you can refer to that article. Piezoelectric transducer transducers are used to measure high pressure that changes very rapidly e.g. pressure changes inside the cylinder of a gasoline engine, compressor, rocket, etc. The pressure changes in these devices are so rapid that ordinary pressure transducers can not respond to them. Pressure below atmospheric pressure is called low pressure. This range extends from the normal pressure of 760 mm of mercury column down to 10-8 of the mercury column. No single transducer can cover this full range. A large number of transducers have been developed for covering different ranges of low pressure. Here I will discuss the Pirani gauge only. This gauge can measure pressures ranging from 10-1 to 10-3 mm of the mercury column. For pressures above 1 mm of the mercury column, the thermal conductivity of a gas is independent of pressure. But for the pressures below 1 mm of the mercury column, it decreases linearly with the decrease in pressure and vice-versa. This property of gases is utilized in the Pirani gauge to measure the pressure. At the pressures below 10-3 mm of Hg of the mercury column, the heat conduction becomes very small and the gauge does not work. A Pirani gauge consists of a wire filament enclosed in a chamber having a side tube for connection to the pressure source. And the gauge is connected in the Wheatstone bridge as shown in Figure. Here, the gauge forms one of the four arms of the bridge. Initially, when current passes through the filament, an equilibrium temperature is reached shortly. When no pressure is applied, the bridge is balanced and no current flows through ammeter. When the source whose pressure is to measured is connected to the gauge, the pressure inside the chamber is increased. And the thermal conductivity of the gas surrounding the filament will increase. This means that gas will conduct more heat from the filament, thus lowering the temperature of the filament. The decrease in filament temperature will lower its resistance. The reverse will when the pressure inside the chamber, decreases. This change in resistance of the filament makes the bridge unbalanced and current flows through the ammeter connected in the bridge. The deflection of the ammeter is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. This ammeter can be calibrated to read the pressure directly. The advantages of Pirani gauge are simplicity, easy to use, ruggedness and cheapness. However, its disadvantage is that its calibration depends upon the type of gas in which the pressure is measured. Thanks for reading about "types of pressure transducer".
Top Soccer Shoes for Kids?
get nikeys1. What brand of shoes are kids going for these days? Most popular?converse is a must, or vans2. Shoes for kids, what do you buy? Skechers/Nike/Target/Payless?I have 4 boys and I buy good sneakers but would never pay $200. for a pair of sneakers, that person has to be out of their mind LOL we buy our boys cleats for sports as well and we buy good ones (NIKE) and only pay around $40.00. For sneakers I usually buy sketchers or NIKE because my boys run on the school cross country team and need good running shoes. My boys also like to skateboard they also like to have a pair of "skate shoes" which are usually flat on the bottom with good grip for skateboarding. or those we usually get DC, Etnies, or Vans. I try to hit sales for example JCPenney just had a good sale on kids sneakers they were buy one get one 50% off. Kohls is also good for these things. I find that these good name brand shoes do last longer. My kids usually only need two pair a year. They usually get a new pair at the beginning of the school year and then again toward the end of the school year and honestly they have always outgrown the shoes before they have worn them out.3. Where can i get shoes in kids size?urban outfitter website maybe or target i know where you can get some in the penrith plaza supre is to old for hr umm get them at shoes 'n' socks!4. Where can I find blank white shoes for kids crafts?Wal-mart generally gets them in quite frequently so maybe you should cheack again or just ask if you can order them but if you didnt mind paying for the price of actual keds any rack room shoe store or famous footwear sells them they are just more expesive than the walmart brand5. Do they make yums shoes for kids?No, not yet. But many of the men's shoes are also identical in the women's sizes. Candy apple red, bubble gum, Cupcake, Lemonade etc. So you could get him a size 5 women's shoe for now. The smallest men's size is 4. 5, so maybe your son will have a growth spurt and get into the men's shoe by the end of summer6. What are the shoes called that look like old people shoes that kids wear?crocks?7. where can i buy ballet shoes? someone told me payless shoes only sell ballet shoes for kids, but i am an adultU want to go to a dance store. If u've never been fitted before you definately want to seek professional advice before a purchase. If you know sizes, check out some of the sites below. Payless shoes are only for kids just beginning. I would recommend Capezio or Blochs! Good luck!8. has or will anyone buy jordan shoes for their kids for school?My son is a senior this year and he does have a job so he bought his own Jordan shoes!!!!! Im with you I refuse to spend that kind of money on a pair of shoes for gods sake! I bought alot of his school clothes but if he wanted expensive shoes like that- he had to use his own pay check and he did. Like his $80 pair of jeans a peice! I cannot even imagine spending 80 bucks for one pair of jeans! So he bought like 5 of those and t shirts like $39 a peice! RIDICULOUS! But he has to fit in! He is straight A's and in basketball and track and wants to look like the rest of his friends! But I personally would not have spent that kind of money on shoes or jeans! His shoes cost him $154. That was on sale!!!! No way!9. where can i buy ballet shoes? someone told me payless shoes only sell ballet shoes for kids, but i am an adultim withh herr10. Tap shoes for kids - quality vs price?I have two little tap dancers. I have found that if the children are taking a beginning level class that expensive shoes are not necessary. They simply do not get the amount wear as shoes used at intermediate and senior levels. I would say the most important thing to consider is FIT. If a tap shoe is too large it can impair the dancing by wobbling, falling off or causing blisters. So, knowing how fast my little ones' feet grow, I would go with the more affordable option as you may be surprised with needing a second pair before year end. You can also check out consignment stores for name brand. These are often near new. Our school has a bulletin board for parents interested in selling or buying used shoes which is also a great resource. Just remember, they must fit! I hope this helps!
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