How to Adjust a Pressure Reducing Valve: the Easy Way

Knowing how to adjust a pressure reducing valve is an important part of any DIYer's toolkit. In this article, we will start from scratch and walk you through the process. We will also tell you everything you need to know about pressure reducing valves and why you might need to adjust yours in the first place. As their name would suggest, pressure reducing valves control the flow of water into your home. Without a pressure reducing valve, this water would travel through your plumbing at a rate unsuitable for residential use. Water heaters in Phoenix are typically capable of handling pressure lower than 80 psi. City officials, meanwhile, consider pressure ranging from 40 to 100 psi acceptable. If the pressure of the water arriving at your home reaches the upper end of that range, it will damage not only your water heater but other appliances and pipes as well. That's where a residential water pressure regulator (another name for 'pressure reducing valve') comes in. Alright, if you are unsatisfied with the general explanation we've provided above, here's a more technical one. A pressure reducing valve is typically close to your water shutoff valve. You will know you are looking at the valve because it will have a gauge nearby. Inside the valve, there are a spring and diaphragm. These two elements interact with incoming water pressure, either contracting or enlarging the hole that your water ultimately passes through. When the water enters the valve at a pressure greater than what it's been set to allow, the diaphragm and spring will contract and reduce the flow. The reverse is also true, however. If the water enters the valve at too low a pressure, the spring and diaphragm will expand and allow the water to exit through a larger hole. Your pressure reducing valve setting will determine what it considers acceptable at both the upper and lower limits of its range. If this does not make total sense to you, do not worry. The exact mechanics and physics of the process confuse even some experienced plumbers. What everyone does know is that the process works. How To Adjust Your Pressure Reducing Valve You will need a wrench of the right size to perform the adjustment. Now that you have a good understanding of how pressure reducing valves work, you should have an idea of what is happening when you do the adjustments. First Things First: Should You Adjust The Pressure? If you are experiencing increased or decreased water pressure due to an abnormality in your municipal water supply's function, adjusting the valve may throw things out of wack when the system returns to normal. If not, it's possible that your valve has gone out of wack somehow and requires adjustment. Also, note that adjusting your pressure reducing valve setting without fully understanding what you are doing can lead to issues. Setting the pressure too high wastes water and can be harmful to your appliances. In extreme cases, your water heater can explode. Appliances like water softeners can also face damage. A pressure reducing valve usually resembles a bell or dome. As mentioned earlier, you will usually see it alongside a gauge. It may be built right into your water meter. In most cases, however, you will find the valve in the form of a separate device that lies the meter within your home's water supply chain. Many valves have a nut, screw, or knob attached to them that allow you to do the actual adjusting. Turning the screw or knob clockwise typically increases the water pressure while turning it counter-clockwise lowers the pressure. This may be counterintuitive since it's the opposite of how faucets work, so make sure you know what direction to turn in order to get your desired pressure. Step #4: Use A Water Gauge To Test Your Pressure Before you make any adjustments to your pressure reducing valve, you need to understand the existing circumstances. While you may know your pressure is too high due to symptoms such as dripping faucets, you want to get an exact reading on the pressure. There are a few places you can attach the gauge to get a good reading. As long as the fixture is downstream of the valve, it's does not particularly matter. Many people attach the gauge to a water heater drain valve or simply a faucet. Step #5: Understand Whether You Have A Closed Or Open System Simply put, an open water heater system allows excess water pressure to make its way back into your cold water supply line and eventually out into the municipal water supply. A closed system does not allow excess pressure to make it back out into the municipal supply. When thermal expansion occurs, this can be dangerous. To avoid this danger, you will have to match the pressure of your regulator to the pressure of your expansion tank. It's not rocket science - but it's good to know before you start making adjustments. Most valves have a locking nut. Once you unscrew this nut, you will be able to turn the adjustment screw, knob, or bolt. Adjust it until the pressure shown on your gauge reaches the desired level. For most residential purposes, that means a pressure below 80 psi. Do not make huge adjustments at once. Make no more than a quarter turn each time before taking a look at the gauge to see what effect you are having. Also, make note of the adjustments you make so that you can revert them if you happen to go too far. Step #7: If Necessary, Adjust Your Thermal Expansion Tank Pressure If you have a closed water heater system, you will also need to adjust the pressure on your thermal expansion tank. To do this properly, you will need an air pressure gauge to test the existing pressure of your expansion tank. Attach the valve directly to the air inlet valve on the tank. Once you've determined the pressure, use a hand pump to raise it to a pressure equal that of your home's water pressure. Do not use an air compressor; doing so risks damage. Step #8: Detach The Water Gauge and Lock The Adjustment Nut Make sure you lock the adjustment nut on your pressure reducing valve. This will prevent the screw from turning easily, which would undo your adjustments. When To Replace Your Pressure Reducing Valve It's recommended that you check your water pressure at least once per year to ensure it's at the desired level. As with most mechanical devices, however, your pressure reducing valve can begin to function improperly with time. You will know this is the case when adjustments to your valve do not result in changes to your water pressure. The pressure may be consistently high regardless of your efforts and you will likely notice issues such as water hammers and dripping faucets. It can be a confusing process for inexperienced DIYers as it requires soldering, plumbing work, and potentially the installation of other equipment to mitigate any issues you come across. Once the valve has been installed professionally, adjusting it on your own is fairly straightforward presuming you have a solid understanding of the steps outlined above. A pressure reducing valve is an important part of your residential water system. It allows you to adjust the pressure of water arriving in your home to a level that is suitable for your appliances. If you conclude that the issue lies with your valve, adjust it using the steps above. If you are unsure of what you are doing and live in the Phoenix area, give us a call at American Home Water and Air. We've been repairing residential water and HVAC systems for more than 30 years and we would be delighted to serve you.

1. What About Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl)? | Flow Control

Sodium hypochlorite possesses some unique qualities that have to be understood if you are going to be able to select a valve for that type of service. Because of their excellent chemical resistance, plastic valves are widely used in sodium hypochlorite applications. But in many cases, the wrong type of valve is put into this service and problems, some potentially dangerous, can develop. Sodium hypochlorite is inherently an unstable compound. Two things can happen to it in a piping system that will affect the choice of a valve. Sodium hypochlorite can decompose over time, which results in the formation of crystalline salts, and as it decomposes, one of the decomposition by-products is oxygen gas. Because they are the most common type of plastic valve, True Union Ball Valves are often used in sodium hypochlorite service. This type of valve may perform satisfactorily in some applications, particularly in 2" and under pipeline sizes, but in many other applications, it wo not . The main problem with ball valves, especially those over 2" in size in sodium hypochlorite service is the crystallization problem. When the valve is operated, the ball turns and liquid is trapped in the cavity between the ball and the valve body. The trapped sodium hypochlorite starts to decompose and crystals begin to form. The crystalline salts adhere to the surfaces of the ball and seals - causing a freezing of the valve and making it inoperable. When the valve is operated, the torque required to do so may be greater than the strength of the valve stem - causing it to break. But that is just the start of the problem. Now the valve has to be taken out of service to be repaired. If oxygen gas has formed and become trapped behind the ball, it is now pressurized. When the ball is freed-up and turned, the pressure of the oxygen gas will blow out any liquid sodium hypochlorite trapped behind the ball. A dangerous situation for operating personnel. These types of problems are most likely to occur in valves larger than 2" that are operated infrequently. And also in valves installed at the bottom of tanks where precipitated impurities could get into the valves and cause accelerated decomposition of the sodium hypochlorite. A plastic, PVC butterfly valve with FPM or Hypalon seals is often a better choice for sodium hypochlorite service in pipelines 2" and larger. Butterfly valves are less prone to freezing up than are ball valves because of the formation of crystallite salts on the sealing surfaces of the valve. For smaller size pipelines a plastic diaphragm valve may be a better choice than a ball valve for the same reasons. Remember that all applications are unique and these recommendations may, or may not, apply in all cases. Sodium hypochlorite is a potentially dangerous process media and Material Safety Data Sheets should be consulted for additional information and safety precautions considered before any final determination is made regarding the application.

2. will my truck pass inspection with a bad exhaust manifold and egr valves?

no it wont... the purpose of the egr is to recirculate exhaust gases to lower the bad ones..... is there a check engine light? is the exhaste missing before the cat converter? then it wont pass inspection...

3. Why is my lawn sprinkler system timer on but not operating the valves?

I would almost certainly go for the fact that its a bad controller. The reason being is that you say that you can manually set it (I am assuming that is a manual set on the controller). That means that the valve solenoid is working properly. New controllers are not too difficult to install especially if you have the old one to reference. I would suggest a good upgrade, perhaps one that has WiFi so you can control it from you phone and only water when there is no rain forecast

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Using the same six-piston pump example, if the flow demand is 16.6 gpm (63 lpm), the displacement of 3 pistons would be required. This could be accomplished by energizing three solenoids to put three pistons in service and one solenoid to close the path to the low-pressure side as the piston reached half stroke. This would cause half of the piston's displacement to enter the pressure stream. Another approach would be to provide an average flow per minute by energizing all the solenoids for 1,044 revolutions and then leaving them de-energized for 756 revolutions. If these approaches cause unwanted power ripples, the same flow could be achieved by timing each of the six solenoids to cause the pistons to displace only 5.8 cc per cycle by turning them on at 58% of the stroke. The DDP can mimic an infinitely variable displacement pump closely without maintaining a constant core pressure. The individual pistons can be at inlet pressure regardless of the pressure at the outlet of the pump. 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Diesel also has denser and less explosive' properties, making it more suitable for heating applications, as well as for fuelling the internal combustion engines of vehicles. The fuels in the Diesel range are known as middle distillates, whereas Petrol, is known as coming from the Petroleum spirit range. Each fuel requires a different combustion process in order for the fuel to burn and the engine to operate. They are similar but there are key differences to note. The most obvious difference is that for the pistons to be powered in an engine, they depend upon different ignition systems. The petrol engine needs a spark to ignite the vapour and air mixture produced by the carburettor when it is compressed in the combustion chamber. A series of four piston strokes completes the cycle. Initially, the vaporised fuel and air is drawn into the combustion chamber via an open intake valve; the piston then compresses the mixture as it moves up the chamber and at the correct moment a plug produces a high voltage spark that explodes the gas and forces the piston back down. As the piston moves back up the chamber the intake valve is shut and an exhaust valve opened by way of a connecting cam-shaft operating the valves timing and allowing the spent gasses to be expelled. Finally, the exhaust valve shuts and the intake valve opens again allowing the fuel mixture back into the chamber as the piston moves downward, completing the cycle. There are normally four pistons fitted on a crankshaft so that they complement each other in performing and continuing each of the four functions. The vertical motion of the pistons translate mechanically through a connecting crank and drive shaft to the wheels, propelling the vehicle forwards or backwards depending on gear selection. The diesel engine generally has a similar four stroke/four piston configuration as the petrol engine, except it does not have a sparking ignition system in order to motivate the pistons, but instead relies initially on an electrically heated glow-plug to ignite the fuel injected into the combustion chamber when the engine is cold and first being started. Similarly to the petrol engine, valves connected to a cam-shaft operate in synchronisation with the pistons' four stroke timing. Diesel engines are usually considered more efficient on fuel economy than petrol engines, and more robust. They are more difficult to stall as they operate at lower rpm (the revolutions of the shaft per minute) and have higher torque making them good at towing and suitable as work vehicles, such as tractors. Torque is a little like the mechanical advantage you exert through leverage, however, this does not ordinarily translate into speed. 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