How Did the Battle of Verdun Come to Symbolise WWI? (for the French, at Least)

After the French stopped the Germans on the Marne, the most important battle of the War was Verdun. Verdun was the most drawn out battle of the War and considered by most historians to have been the greatest battle. German Chief of Staff, Erich von Falkenhayn, accurately concluded in 1915 that the key to winning the war lay not on the Eastern Front, but on defeating the French Army on the Western Front. Falkenhayn maintained that if France could be defeated in a major set-piece battle, Britain would have no other option than seeking terms from Germany. This of course is a strategy the Germans could have pursued in 1914. If they had attacked France directly instead of through Belgium, they would not have had to fight the Belgians and British and in all likelihood would have prevailed on the Western Front. Falkenhayn correctly assessed that the French would consider the defense if Verdun as a matter of honor. His plan was essentially to bleed the French white in the defense of Verdun. One historian claims this is what all commanders said after their offensives failed and that he was actually trying to achieve break through. Strachan Verdun and surrounding fortifications were a strategic French position located on the eastern section of the Western Front and thus was fought by the Germans and French without British involvement. The battle took place in 10 km square around the French fortifications at Verdun. The battle began with a German offensive (February 21, 1916). The Germans hammered at Verdun for 8 months, but because of the British to the west could not concentrate all of their forces. General Henri Philippe Petain made the words " They shall not pass." (Ils ne passeront pas.) famous during the battle. The Germans were unable to completely surround Verdun. The French at great cost maintained a road connection to supply their ebatteled forces in Verdun. It came to be called the "Sacred Way". Verdun was the greatest bloodbath in European military history. Casualties totaled an incredibke 0.7 million men. The fighting did not end until the end of the year (December 19). Falkenhayn was correct in many respects. The Germans came very close to breaking the French Army. They did destroy it as an offensive force. In the process, however, the German Army was also weakened. This Falkenhayn had not foreseen. And not only would the British after the Somme begin building a large conscript army, but the Kaiser was in the process of bringing America into the War with its huge reserves of manpower. And a German Army weakened by Verdun would have to face them. • Suggested Reading

Hindu is the majority religion in India and still they feel insecure when it comes to Ram Mandir-like issues. Are Hindus afraid that the reconstruction of the Babri Mosque will turn this country into an Islamic nation?

We, the Educated people of India want Mandir/Gurudwara instead of mosque Because ? :Muslims burnt our thousands of temples and churches. But time has come , and we are going to stop it. We want justice and our belief back.Ram mandir will serve food to millions like historical Golden temple of Amritsar irrespective of religion whether they are muslim or hindu.

Ram mandir is our one of the major holy place. Historically Ram mandir is important from more than thousands of years.This mosque BABARI represents Islamic kings and leaders can rape, can kill, convert others to islam and in the end they will be remembered and worshiped with name of mosque as BABAR. We all hate that BABAR who killed lakhs of patriot kshatriyas and girls. It is as like naming a temple ajmal kasab. Both killed people. Will you make memorial of Kasab ? tell me?In some mosques, Imams teach , Not to sing Vandematram,the national anthom, the news flaired on national television and preach that this country should be converted to islamic. I and thousands more have wittnessed with our own eyes. People fear that Instead of food, bullets from islamic terrorists will be served if mosque allowed to build there.We want freedom from that. We want equality.This is IMAM in a Saharanpur mosque, Uttarpradesh, It was on news so now it is resolved by government , but Even muslims dont know, gradually they are being brainwashed by Imams silently.

History of India says only islam has broke India into pieces each time and killed people on the name of imaginary heaven. But no longer it will repeat, it is now democracy.Muslims are not that bad in India like of syria and pakistan.

A child is always innocent. see.

But Imams and forign interfere convert them into terrorists and killers says think tanks. When they grow up, see some of mosque products, see. Instead of reading science books, they do this by going to mosque. image of JAMA mosque, Delhi, I don't know what this image tells:What is in Mandir see, see :What is in mosque see, see my dear:The French Find Surprises in MosquesWell, Not Really Just These Things: Whole world knows my dear , whole world, who taught to do 9/11 and 26/11, I am not naming particular religion, but you know them.Hindus and sikhs give food in Bhandaara Or Langar, Even christians invest in hospitals and schools,Learn love from them.. But christians, hindus and shikhs from pakistan and Kashmir are vanished. That is main concern rather than one Babri mosque. Ask this question instead.Thanks for upvote.Refrences: Yahoo search.Note: This answer has been produced by some instances and my experiences. Not all mosques may lead to same. I am not against any religion

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Who would win a fight between Mongols led by Genghis Khan and Spartans led by Leonidas?

This question has a couple of ways to look at it. One is a basic death match of 2 armies in the open. They don't really need to be in the open even, I'm not sure the Spartans would do very well even in a more difficult terrain. Anything short of Thermopylae would do for the Mongols. And even that one is not certain. This is a case that clearly is to the advantage of the Mongols. You don't even need the mongol technology, a look at the battle of Ephesus during the Ionian revolt will show clearly what will happen. The hoplite shield was a good defense item, but even their contemporary arrows were dangerous enough for them. At the Battle of Marathon the Greeks ran towards the Persian line in a loose formation so they can get out of the kill zone faster and only formed into the phalanx close to their lines. Obviously arrows were a danger for them since such a risk was taken. So in such a battle the horse archers are clear favorites.But history is not really full of these death-matches. Battles did not happen in vacuum. So the more realistic scenario is that the Mongols would invade the Spartans. I will not hammer home the advantages of the stir-ups, steel weapons and gunpowder weapons. In any realistic scenario they wouldn't be almost 2 millennia of technology apart. Instead i will look at a more general strategic and logistic situation. Mongol land invasion of the Greek islands and peninsula would be the worst environment for them. Their large cavalry forces would be hard to maneuver in that terrain and foraging would be a gigantic problem. They would most likely be dependent on a supply fleet, and they will also need this supply fleet to be able to invade the many many islands they will need to conquer. And here is where the problem lies. Mongols and boats did not go well together. The Greeks would obliterate the Mongol army. In face of an invasion Sparta would not fight alone, all the Greeks would be in it. And to get to Sparta you have to go past a lot of other city-states. So the Mongols might get a good start and burn and destroy some of the Greek cities, much like Xerxes did. But then they will run out of supplies and the Greek resistance in the islands will not go away. So in a longer term consideration my money is on the Greeks. Before all said and done the Greeks would have learnt the hard way the strategy employed by the Mongols and before they would have adapted pretty fast. Persians also had lots and lots of horse archers and they also came in numbers much superior to any Mongol force that reached East Europe. And they didn't find the Greek states such a walk in the park. In fact, it was their undoing

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If the Huns are a far eastern Asian tribe why are they commonly depicted as having Germanic features such as blonde hair and white skin?

White-washed Hollywood and Eurocentric folks. I have seen Genghis Khan and other east asian nomadic conquerors portrayed as being caucasians. Fortunately, we now have a very good knowledge as to where the Huns came from if you put some extensive effort into researching. There are genetic datas available but it goes unnoticed and overlooked. I have never heard Huns being depicted as being blonde hair or white skin by the legitimate historians or by the anthropologists. Too many opinionated bullshit and conjectures out here and there as many people still rely on the old story and knowledge from some 50 years ago or so.

Yes, it came from East and Central Asia.

I posted this on other Quora regarding the Huns.Jordanes provided the physical appearance of Attila. Short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and swarthy skin, showing evidence of his origin. This is not a typical feature of the Turkic people but rather the Mongolic features of East Asia.Heres a longer explanation as to whyThe Xiongnu from Mongolia/Manchuria predates the Huns in Europe (as they showed up 200 years later from the northern borders of China). Many scholars have debated for years and many now are in a agreement that theyre the same confederacy who have reached Europe. There were many Turkic tribes in Central and Western Asia. Many of the Mongol or Manchu origin of Xiongnu have integrated with the Turks, Alans, and other nomadic people as they travel further to the west. The Russian anthropologist (1960s) provided the ethnological details of the skulls and the skeletal remains when visited the Hunnish and Avar cemetary sites in Hungary and Romania. Most of Hunnish elite leaders had a striking resemblance to modern Manchurians and the elite Avar skeletal remains with central Mongolians. He has also noted that the most of calvary remains were either intermixed or homogenous. Overall, it had a higher Turkic related remains (70% Turkic vs 30% Mongoloid). Whats interesting about his report is that all the elite/leader skulls were purely Mongoloid/East Asian without any mixture of Turkics.Heres a recent analysis.Huns, Avars and conquering Hungarian nomadic groups arrived into the Carpathian Basin from the Eurasian Steppes and significantly influenced its political and ethnical landscape. In order to shed light on the genetic affinity of above groups we have determined Y chromosomal haplogroups and autosomal loci, from 49 individuals, supposed to represent military leaders. Haplogroups from the Hun-age are consistent with Xiongnu ancestry of European Huns. Most of the Avar-age individuals carry East Asian Y haplogroups typical for modern north-eastern Siberian and Mongolian Buryat populations and their autosomal loci indicate mostly unmixed East Asian characteristics. Give those Huns real credit instead of constantly being whitewashed by the western media and Euroccentric academic circles.

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Knowledge About Sandstone - Phillips County Carnegie Library of Sandstone
Phillips County Carnegie Library of sandstonePhillips County Carnegie Library is a Carnegie library on the National Register of Historic Places located in Malta, Montana. It was added to the Register on August 27, 1980. For a time, it was used as a museum interpreting local history.It was built of tan brick on a stone foundation in 1917. It is 34 by 62 feet (10m 19m) in plan, and has the words "Carnegie Library" carved in sandstone above its doorway.The public library moved to a new location in May 1978, and the local historical society then planned to use this building as a museum.------Acacia gnidium of sandstoneAcacia gnidium is a shrub belonging to the genus Acacia and the subgenus Phyllodineae that is native to parts of north eastern Australia.The shrub typically grows to a height of up to 4m (13ft) and has a dense and spreading habit.The shrub is found in Central Queensland from around Kroombit Tops National Park in the south east to around Springsure in the south west and up to around the White Mountains in the north where it is found on rugged rocky sandstone country as a part of scrub or Eucalyptus woodland communities.------Poet's Seat Tower of sandstoneCoordinates: 423541N 723511W / 42.5946N 72.5865W / 42.5946; -72.5865Poet's Seat Tower is a 1912 sandstone observation tower, located in Greenfield, Massachusetts. It was so named to honor a long tradition of poets being drawn to the spot, in particular, the local poet Frederick Goddard Tuckerman. By 1850, the location was referred to as "Poet's Seat" by Tuckerman in a surviving herbarium entry for November 10 of that year.An earlier wooden tower was erected at the site on June 3, 1879. This first structure was built, along with a public drinking fountain and a road accessing the site, under the auspices of The Greenfield Rural Club.------Hall Cliff of sandstoneHall Cliff (7159S 6837W / 71.983S 68.617W / -71.983; -68.617Coordinates: 7159S 6837W / 71.983S 68.617W / -71.983; -68.617) is a sandstone cliff 1 nautical mile (2km) long, located along the south side of Saturn Glacier and 1 nautical mile west of Citadel Bastion in eastern Alexander Island, Antarctica. The feature was mapped from trimetrogon air photography taken by the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition, 194748, and from survey by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, 194850. It was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee from association with Saturn Glacier after Asaph Hall, the American astronomer who contributed toward the study of Saturn and also discovered the satellites of the planet Mars..------Buffalo Public School No. 24 of sandstoneBuffalo Public School No. 24, also known as Public School 59, is a historic school building located in the Broadway-Fillmore neighborhood of Buffalo, Erie County, New York. The original section was built in 1901, and is a three-story, seven bay, "I"-shaped, red brick building over a raised basement with Renaissance Revival detailing. The building incorporates sandstone, terra cotta, and pressed metal details. It was the first school to offer special education within the City of Buffalo school system. The school has been redeveloped as an apartment building.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2016.------Mynydd Meio of sandstoneMynydd Meio is a 322-metre-high hill in the county borough of Caerphilly in South Wales. Parts of its western slopes fall within Rhondda Cynon Taf county borough. Its eastern slopes drop away to Cwm yr Aber between Caerphilly and Abertridwr and its western slopes to the valley of the Taf. The high point is just over 200 m north of the trig point which sits at 322 metres (1,056ft) above sea-level.The hill is crossed by the Senghenydd Dyke, an ancient earthwork considered to date from the 13th century and associated with nearby Caerphilly Castle.------Searight's Fulling Mill of sandstoneSearight's Fulling Mill is a historic fulling mill located at Perryopolis, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, USA. It was built about 1810 and is a 2 1/2-story, sandstone building with a gable roof. It measures approximately 20 by 30 feet (6.1 by 9.1m). The mill closed in the 1820s and was converted to a dwelling.It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.The mill is named after William Searight, who built the mill on a farm previously owned by George Washington. Searight is credited for realizing that small fulling mills could not compete with city based factories served by railroads, and left the fulling business before his mills became unprofitable.------Jacob Spori Building of sandstoneThe Jacob Spori Building was a historic building located in Rexburg, Idaho listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was the first building built at the permanent location of Ricks College, a college founded in 1888 by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.It was built during 1900 to 1903. Its external walls were faced with ashlar, and were 51 inches (1.3m) at the foundation, 32 inches (0.81m) at the first floor windows, 28 inches (0.71m) at the second floor windows, and 24 inches (0.61m) at the third floor windows. Lighter colored sandstone was used for string courses encircling the building.The building was destroyed by a fire in 2000. A new Spori Building was built on the same site and in a similar style.------Old Greeley County Courthouse (Kansas) of sandstoneThe Old Greeley County Courthouse in Tribune, Kansas, is the former courthouse of Greeley County, Kansas. Built from 1889 to 1890, the courthouse was the first in Greeley County. Construction started only a year after the county was formed in 1888. William T. Heaps, who also designed Hamilton County's courthouse, designed the building. The sandstone courthouse has a plain design with an iron cornice. It was constructed by Allen and Oleson of Ness City, Kansas and William Ruff.In 1975, Greeley County replaced the courthouse with a new building adjacent to the old one. The old courthouse became the Greeley County Historical Society Museum.The courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976.------Ghoufi of sandstoneGhoufi, also known as the Rhoufi, Balconies of Ghoufi and Ghoufi Canyon, is a historic settlement in the village of T'kout in Batna Province, Algeria. These ruins are located in the Aures Mountains and Abiod Valley. The Balconies of Ghoufi overlook an oasis.The Ghoufi balcony ruins include troglodyte homes or domesticated cave dwellings. The homes are carved out of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, including sandstone. The home are four centuries old and were inhabited until the 1970s. The ruins preserve traditional and indigenous construction methods.Ghoufi is included as part of the Parc des Aurs on UNESCO's Tentative List of World Heritage Sites.------Brindley Mountain of sandstoneBrindlee Mountain (or "Brindley Mountain") is an isolated portion of the Appalachian Plateau in northern Alabama. It occupies significant portions of Cullman, Morgan, and Marshall Counties and extends into Winston and Lawrence counties. The plateau is formed by a sandstone cap-rock overlying limestone. The main mountain sits south of Lacey's Spring and houses communities such as Union Hill and Morgan City as well as parts of Union Grove and spans into Arab also. U.S. Route 231 runs over Brindlee Mountain. The highest point of Brindlee Mountain rests in Morgan City.Several radio stations have broadcast towers located on Brindley Mountain. 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It usually blooms between August and December producing white-pink-purple star-shaped flowers.Found on hillsides and among granite outcrops in the Mid West and Wheatbelt regions extending into the Swan Coastal Plain of Western Australia where it grows on sandy or clay soils over granite, laterite and sandstone.The species was first formally described by the botanist John Lindley in 1839 in the work A Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony. The only synonym is Calycothrix glutinosa, described in 1843 by Johannes Conrad Schauer in the work Monographia Myrtacearum Xerocarpicarum.------Steinsfjorden of sandstoneSteinsfjorden is a branch of the lake Tyrifjorden located in Buskerud, Norway. It has a length of about eight kilometers, stretching from the sound Kroksund at Sundvollen northwards to sa, in the municipalities of Ringerike and Hole. At the eastern side are steep cliffs towards Krokskogen.At the western side of Steinsfjorden is Stein Grd, the largest farm in Buskerud. The ruins of Stein Church (Stein kirkeruin) are located on Stein Grd. The church was constructed during the latter half of the 1100s of sandstone and limestone from the area. By the second half of the 1500s, the church was no longer actively used.------Arkansas Valley National Bank of sandstoneThe Arkansas Valley National Bank, constructed in 1902, is a two-story, 30 feet x 90 feet sandstone structure located in Pawnee, Oklahoma. Constructed in a Late Victorian architectural style, it was Pawnee's original bank. When the building opened, the bank occupied the first floor, while a doctor, photographer, and local telephone office occupied the second floor. The bank closed around 1918, and the building has served as various storefronts since.Originally the bank was to be called the Pawnee County Bank, and this name is engraved on the east wall; however it was chartered as the Arkansas Valley National Bank. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.The building's facade was heavily damaged in a 5.8-magnitude earthquake on September 3, 2016.------Description of sandstoneThe glabrous and resinous shrub typically grows to a height of up to 3m (9.8ft) and has a spreading habit. It has slender, prominently ribbed branchlets. Like most species of Acacia it has phyllodes rather than true leaves. The flat, thick and evergreen phyllodes have a linear shape and are 6 to 22mm (0.24 to 0.87in) in length and 0.7 to 1.1mm (0.028 to 0.043in) wide and are straight or slightly decurved at the apex with one prominent vein on each face. When it blooms it produced simple inflorescences occur singly in the axils and have spherical flower-heads containing 30 to 35 yellow coloured flowers..------Rich Mountain (ArkansasOklahoma) of sandstoneRich Mountain is the second highest point of the U.S. Interior Highlands and Ouachita Mountains, and in the U.S. state of Arkansas; it is also the site of Queen Wilhelmina State Park. Rich Mountain is a long, generally eastwest-trending ridge composed of hard sandstone. It is located just outside of Mena, Arkansas and is intersected by the Arkansas-Oklahoma border. Atop its summit is the Rich Mountain Lookout Tower, which is approximately 2.4mi (3.9km) east-southeast of the Queen Wilhelmina Lodge.Arkansas State Highway 88 and Oklahoma State Highway 1, collectively known as the Talimena Scenic Drive, traverse the entire top of Rich Mountain and provide excellent vistas of the surrounding Ouachita Mountains.------Sulphur Creek (Utah) of sandstoneSulphur Creek is a slot canyon canyoneering route found in Capitol Reef National Park in the state of Utah. It is a 6.25 mile hike one way and has been categorized by the state of Utah as an easy hiking trail. The canyon contains waterfalls, pools, overhangs and red sandstone, and a shallow stream that runs through it year-round. The route begins from the Chimney Rock trailhead and ends at the Visitor Center. The rocks at Sulphur Creek are some of the oldest exposed rocks in Capitol Reef.Sulphur Creek confluences with the Fremont River at the town of Fruita, Utah, located within Capitol Reef National Park.
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